January 28, 2004 Georgetown University Washington, D.C.
Arms Control Association Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service Center for Peace and Security Studies
PROCEEDINGS OF THE PAUL C. WARNKE CONFERENCE ON THE PAST, PRESENT & FUTURE OF ARMS CONTROL ANUARY AT GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, DC, JANUARY 28, 2004
Sponsored by the Arms Control Association, Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, and the Center for Peace and Security Studies Program at Georgetown University
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ABOUT PAUL C. WARNKE FOREWARD, Daryl Kimball, Executive Director, Arms Control Association WELCOMING REMARKS I. ASSESSING THE RECORD OF ARMS CONTROL Presentations by John Steinbruner (Chairman), ACA Board of Directors; John Newhouse, Senior Fellow, Center for Defense Information; Nobuyasu Abe, UN Under-Secretary General for Disarmament Affairs; Elisa D. Harris, Senior Research Scholar, Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland Questions and Answers Panel Biographies
24 II. MEETING TODAY’S PROLIFERATION CHALLENGES Presentations by Robert Gallucci (Chairman), Dean, Georgetown University’s Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service; Robert Einhorn, Senior Adviser, Center for Strategic and International Studies; Daniel Poneman, Principal, The Scowcroft Group; George Perkovich, Vice President for Studies, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Questions and Answers Panel Biographies III. KEYNOTE SPEAKER, Senator Joseph Biden on “Avoiding Nuclear Anarchy” Remarks as Delivered Questions and Answers Biography IV. ADDRESSING FUTURE ARMS CONTROL AND SECURITY PROBLEMS Presentations by Catherine Kelleher (Chairman), Editor, Naval War College Review; Matthew Bunn, Senior Research Associate, Project on Managing the Atom; Richard Speier, Nonproliferation Consultant; Eugene Habiger, former commander in Chief of the U.S. Strategic Command Questions and Answers Panel Biographies V. CLOSING ADDRESS, Senator Jack Reed on “Arms Control and U.S. National Security” Remarks as Delivered Questions and Answers Biography ABOUT THE EDMUND A. WALSH SCHOOL AND THE CENTER FOR PEACE AND SECURITY STUDIES ABOUT THE ARMS CONTROL ASSOCIATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
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P AUL C. WARNKE
mbassador Paul C. Warnke was a leading and tireless proponent of arms control. A member of the Arms Control Association Board of Directors for nearly two decades, Warnke had a distinguished career of promoting arms control from within and outside government. Most notably, he served as the director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) under President Jimmy Carter. During this period, he also led the effort to negotiate binding limits on U.S. and Soviet nuclear forces at the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT). Although Warnke resigned from the government in 1978 under pressure from those who thought he was not taking a tough enough stance with Moscow, the U.S.Soviet arms talks eventually produced SALT II in 1979. However, SALT II never entered into force because President Carter asked the Senate to halt its consideration of the treaty following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Before President Carter ’s 1976 nomination of Warnke to lead ACDA, he had already riled defense conservatives for criticizing their view that the United States needed to match or surpass the Soviet Union weapon-for-weapon. He set out his ideas in a renowned and controversial 1975 Foreign Policy article, “Apes on a Treadmill.” Warnke wrote, “The contention that, whatever the practical military utility, we will incur political disadvantages unless we maintain a lead across the spectrum of strategic and conventional forces, is both a recipe for endless escalation of defense costs and a self-fulfilling prophesy.” Instead, he recommended that the United States show restraint in its weapons developments on the premise that the Soviet...