The Ottoman Empire

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~ T HE O TTOMAN E MPIRE ~ AND THE W ORLD A ROUND I T

~ For Virginia Aksan in friendship ~

~ The Ottoman Empire and the World Around It

~ S URAIYA F AROQHI ~

Published in 2004 by I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd 6 Salem Road, London W2 4BU 175 Fifth Avenue, New York NY 10010 www.ibtauris.com In the United States of America and Canada distributed by Palgrave Macmillan a division of St Martin’s Press 175 Fifth Avenue, New York NY 10010 Copyright © Suraiya Faroqhi 2004 The right of Suraiya Faroqhi to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted by the author in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patent Act 1988. All rights reserved. Except for brief quotations in a review, this book, or any part thereof, may not be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. The Library of Ottoman Studies 7 ISBN 1 85043 715 7 EAN 978 1 85043 715 4 A full CIP record for this book is available from the British Library A full CIP record is available from the Library of Congress Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: available Typeset in Times by JCS Publishing Services Printed and bound in Great Britain by MPG Books Ltd, Bodmin

~ Table of contents
List of illustrations A note on transliteration and dates Acknowledgements Map of the Ottoman Empire in Asia and Africa Map of the Ottoman Empire in Europe 1 ~ Introduction Islamic law and sultanic pragmatism: 2 ~ Determining the parameters of Ottoman ‘foreign policy’: some general considerations: 4 ~ A few ground rules of Ottoman ‘foreign politics’: 6 ~ Validity and limits of the ‘warfare state’ model: 8 ~ Accommodation, both open and unacknowledged, and the problem of structural similarities in the early modern world: 10 ~ An impossible balance between ‘east’ and ‘west’?: 11 ~ Who, in which period, formed part of the Ottoman elite?: 13 ~ The Ottoman Empire as a world economy: 14 ~ The abiding centrality of Istanbul: 16 ~ Confronting our limits: problems of documentation: 18 ~ ‘Placing’ our topic in geographical terms: 20 ~ ‘Placing’ our topic in time: 21 ~ Confronting different perspectives, or how to justify comparisons: 23 ~ A common world: 25 ~

ix x xi xiii xiv 1

2 ~ On sovereignty and subjects: expanding and safeguarding the Empire ‘Foreign interference’ and its limits: 28 ~ A sequence of ‘mental images’: 30 ~ The 1560s/967–77: 32 ~ Introducing the major ‘players’ of the 1560s/ 967–77: the Habsburg possessions, France, Venice and Iran: 32 ~ Religious rivalries of the 1560s/967–77: 34 ~ The mid-sixteenth century: foreign subjects present on Ottoman territory – and those who were conspicuously absent: 37 ~ Religious-cum-political rivalries between the sultans and ‘western’ rulers in the 1560s/967–77: 41 ~ How the Ottoman elite did not organize its relations with the outside world in the 1560s/967–77: 43 ~ Limits of imperial reach in the 1560s/967–77: Anatolian loyalties to non-Ottoman princes: 44 ~ Limits of imperial reach: some Rumelian examples: 46 ~ Limits of imperial reach in the 1560s/967–77, a further example: Yemen as a frontier province: 47 ~ The Empire in 1639/1048–9: 49 ~ Protecting Ottoman

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~ THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND THE WORLD AROUND IT ~

territories in 1639/1048–9: the eastern frontier: 49 ~ The northern regions as a trouble spot in 1639/1048–9: 50 ~ Expanding Ottoman territory in 1639/ 1048–9: relations with Venice and the imminent conquest of Crete: 51 ~ Potential threats to Ottoman control over the western part of the Balkan peninsula in 1639/1048–9: 52 ~ Early links to the seventeenth-century European world economy?: 53 ~ Before 1718/1130–1: 55 ~ Wars on all fronts: 55 ~ ‘The Empire strikes back’: toward a reprise en main before 1718/1130–1: 58 ~ Extraterritorialities before 1718/1130–1: 60 ~ Conquest and trade as sources of regional instabilities before...
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