The Ottoman Empire

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  • Topic: Ottoman Empire, Osman I, Ottoman Dynasty
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  The Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire, also historically referred to as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state founded by Turkish tribes under Osman Bey in north-western Anatolia in 1299. With the conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed II in 1453, the Ottoman state was transformed into an empire. During the 16th and 17th centuries, in particular at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was one of the most powerful states in the world – a multinational, multilingual empire that stretched from the southern borders of the Holy Roman Empire on the outskirts of Vienna, Royal Hungary and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the north to Yemen and Eritrea in the south; from Algeria in the west to Azerbaijan in the east; controlling much of southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states, some of which were later absorbed into the empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. With Constantinople as its capital and vast control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the empire was at the center of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for over six centuries. The reign of the long-lived Ottoman dynasty lasted for 623 years, from 27 July 1299 to 1 November 1922, when the monarchy in Turkey was abolished. After the international recognition of the new Turkish parliament headquartered in Ankara, by means of the Treaty of Lausanne signed on 24 July 1923, the Turkish parliament proclaimed on 29 October 1923 the establishment of the Republic of Turkey as the continuing state of the defunct Ottoman Empire, in line with the treaty. The Ottoman Caliphate was abolished on 3 March 1924; the Caliphate's authority and properties were transferred to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. Name

In Ottoman Turkish the Empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAliyye-yi ʿOsmâniyye, In Modern Turkish it is known as Osmanlı Devleti or Osmanlı İmparatorluğu. In older English usage, mostly the 19th century and earlier, it was usually referred to as the Turkish Empire or Turkey. In western accounts, the two names "Ottoman" and "Turkey" - were used interchangeably in relation to the Turkish state during the age of the Empire. This dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23 when the Ankara-based Turkish regime favoured Turkey as a sole official name, which had been one of the European names of the state since Seljuq times. History

Rise
Upon the demise of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, precursor of Ottomans, in 1300s, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent states, the so-called Ghazi emirates. By 1300, a weakened Byzantine Empire had lost most of its Anatolian provinces to ten Ghazi principalities. One of the Ghazi emirates was led by Osman I, from which the name Ottoman is derived, son of Ertuğrul, around Eskişehir in western Anatolia. Osman I extended the frontiers of Turkish settlement toward the edge of the Byzantine Empire. In this period, a formal Ottoman government was created whose institutions would change drastically over the life of the empire, but that would prove vital to the Ottoman Empire's rapid expansion. The government used the socio-political institution known as the millet system, under which religious and ethnic minorities were allowed to manage their own affairs with substantial independence from central control. Such religious tolerance resulted in limited opposition when conquering other territories and peoples. Osman I openly welcomed any and all fighting men dedicated to the advancement of his cause. In the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over the Eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans. Osman's son, Orhan, captured the city of Bursa in 1324 and made it the new capital of the...
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