The Origin of Species

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Chapter 2
Variation Under Nature

In the book, The Origin of Species, by Charles Darwin, he explains variation under nature, examining if the variety in species in nature can be possibly similar to the variety in domesticated species. Charles Darwin said, “The term “variety” is almost difficult to define; but here community of descent is almost universally implied, though it can rarely be proved.” He explains how people use the word monstrosities which he presumes is meant some considerable deviation of structure either injurious to or not useful to the species. Monstrosities are variations happening in nature that do not help and could actually be harmful to animals or plants. Charles Darwin questions and thinks if there is variations in the environmental conditions, like temperature and climate. He explains that temperature and climate is not created by parents offspring and therefore it could not be categorized as variations for species. But some slight variations can be passed from parents to offspring and this can gather in the species as a whole. Charles Darwin explains a problem of contrast of variations within a species the existence of two separate species that have some distinctions between species is impossible to determine. In this chapter Darwin looks at variations in species of birds between one Galapagos island and another. Even though at first he has trouble figuring out the distinction between species later he finds that distinction is straight forward. Charles Darwin finds theories of the separations of species, but theologians believe it happened by an act of god. Charles Darwin claims that there is no difference in the amount of variety between the smaller and larger groups of genra. Darwin gives a clue about the difference between larger and smaller genra which is the affect of each group's struggle for survival. Dominant group have the more chance to form variation and it gives them a better chance of survival than the smaller species.

Chapter 4: Natural Selection
In the book, The Origin of Species, in chapter four, Charles Darwin's main idea is about natural selection and disscusses about a breeder selecting desired charateristics for animals. Darwin believes that if a breeder can select then it is possible for nature to act the same way. Variations will always give one species an advantage over another species which allows them a better chance of survival and also leaving more offspring. Nature can create a minor advantage which can rise an organism's likehood of surving over another and these advantages variations are transmitted at birth and they can be given to future generations. As nature can give species there advantages they could also limit species advantageuos characteristics on the species and it can actually give the species a less chance of survival putting the species in the possible chance of extinction. Like for a example, a wolf with thinner feature might be able to run faster than another wolf and it would be able to escape from its preadtor. Also an insect might have a smaller body type then the rest and the insect will have more oppurtunities to get more food easily from plants. In this chapter Charles Darwin writes about sexual selection and it is consider a factor in species evolution. The main key to survival is having offspring. Male species with variations attract female species because they are more likely to reproduce more offersprings than another species. These advantages will be passed on to the offspring of course. Charles Darwin describes the geographical requirements for propagation of advantageous traits. In natural selections isolation is the key because the individuals will live in a certian area where no new organisms will meet. Species that are not isolated spread around widely which increase the number of species and also increase the chance of survival since there is numerous amount of species. Darwin expresses the concept of natural...
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