The Grand Alliance, formed by the US, the UK & the USSR, had been suffering a lot from the WW2. They all did not expect to have some new great enemies just after eliminating their old great one, however, just a while after the end of the WW2, their relation broke down unexpectedly, & Cold War, the military tension, proxy war, political conflicts & economic competition primarily between the communist bloc leaded by the USSR & the capitalist bloc leaded by the US, had developed. Stalin’s poor image & offensive actions irritated the US to respond to Stalin’s actions by unskillful and over-reacted actions. Both have responsibility in causing the Cold War rather than solely blaming Stalin. By the way, the responsibility of Stalin is greater than the others. 2. Violation of promises by the USSR
First of all, the first action obviously offending the others, greatly violating the wills of the others, & destroying the trusts and alliance was produced by Stalin, which broke the agreements about benefits division they made together at the Yalta Conference & was easily perceived by others as a threat to the others. It induced the US to lead a series of strong reactions to contain the expansion of the USSR to prevent its interests from damage. Roosevelt (1945) commented it two weeks before his death, ‘[Stalin] has broken every one of the promises he made at Yalta.’ At the Yalta Conference, Stalin agreed allowing a government of national unity including both non-communists & communists to be formed in Poland. He also agreed to allow free elections in Eastern Europe countries. However, afterward Stalin did not allow non-communists to share the power in those places & form communist governments that obeyed him (‘‘The Yalta and Potsdam conferences’’ 2). He wanted to enlarge the sphere of control over Eastern Europe. Roosevelt belongs to the groups that viewed the USSR as an ally & really believed Stalin would keep it promises. However, Stalin disillusioned him. The actions not only made Roosevelt surprise, it also made others people surprise & began to think if the USSR was trustable or not. Due to his misconduct behaviors, therefore even if he just wanted to make Eastern Europe became a buffer zone for defensive purpose to stabilize his rule rather than to invade worldwide capitalist blocs actively by outputting communist revolution, it is still understandable why the US & the UK feared the USSR expansion in a global scale that threaten them & hence they seek a vigorous reaction. If none of his offensive misconduct actions exist, how can US convert its original attitude? Stalin is the person starting the future conflicts, hence he should bear the main responsibility. 3. Unskillful reaction of the US
However, the US should also bear a little responsibility. The US irrationally & subjectively judged that the expansion of influence on Eastern Europe showed that the USSR wanted to output communist revolution all over the world which challenged its benefits, & then it adopted the containment policy toward the USSR. This was the first time there was an apparent & official action expressing the view on the opposite bloc as a rival by announcing the ideas of opposing the others officially. This was not a good reaction & it was unnecessarily overreacted. In fact, according to the past history, Stalin was a cruel person concerning his power more than supporting ethnic principles & idealism. In order to please Japan during the WW2, he announced that he accepted Manchukuo as a country (‘‘Declaration Regarding Mongolia’’). He had ignored the ideology of communism for many times when supporting it would make his own interests being sacrificed. He was not likely to output communism all over the world enthusiastically which was useless for him when the USSR was unable to control the world very effectively when it wanted to recover from the war. It is more...
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