The Nuances of the Twelve Principles of Animation, a Practical Application of Timing and Appeal.

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EM-0337D Individual Specialization
Research Document

Contents Page

Subject: Page:
Introduction 3
What ways can animators ensure that their timing is accurate? 4

How can animators use timing to strengthen an animation 9 by creating meaning, emotions and deeper storylines?

How is timing used alongside the other 12 Principles of animation? 11

How are appealing characters created? 13

How do animators create appealing animations? 24

Are there different types of appeal?25

How are appealing compositions created? 27

Conclusions 28

References30

Further Reading33

Introduction:
This research document will focus on: The nuances of the twelve principles of Animation, a practical application of timing and appeal.

Timing and appeal are two of the twelve principles of animation that were created by the Walt Disney Company (Disney). Disney is a very popular animation company that were founded on October 16, 1923. They are well respected within the animation industry and are responsible for creating a lot of animation classics alongside well known characters such as Mickey Mouse. They are still working on animated films today. The most recent film they worked on was Brave (2012) alongside Pixar studios. The 12 principles was formed out of jargon used by some of the early animators at Disney to describe their animations. This eventually turned into rules of the trade. These principles have now been passed down to their next generation of employees and are also used by people across the world learning to becoming animators. The twelve principles are: 1) Squash and Stretch

2) Anticipation
3) Staging
4) Straight ahead action and pose to pose
5) Follow through and overlapping action
6) Slow in and slow out
7) Arcs
8) Secondary action
9) Timing
10) Exaggeration
11) Solid Drawing
12) Appeal
This document will split timing down into two categories. First of all an animator must learn how timing works in a physical sense. This includes understanding topics like weight, gravity and balance. By understanding this, an animator can have a character close a door and the time taken for the door to close will be in relation to how much force was put into the push. Essentially the animator must have a solid understanding of the laws of physics in order to produce an animation that is believable. While this may sound complicated, everyone has already gathered this knowledge subconsciously during everyday life and must simply transfer this knowledge to their conscious in order to apply it to their animations. The second way that timing is used is in order to improve aspects of the animation. The correct use of timing has the ability to bring meaning, emotions and strengthen a storyline. There are many more areas that timing can improve within an animation and the way in which timing is changed in order to achieve these benefits is completely unique depending on the animation. Generally time is manipulated within animation by varying the amount of pictures/frames between each key frame. Key frames are extreme poses and within action scenes these are called the important poses within a scene. By adding more inbetween frames the scene will slow down and by removing inbetween frames the scene will speed up. Without timing there is no life within the animation, just objects being moved around the screen! Thomas and Johnston (1981, p.68) within the Disney book The Illusion of Life described appeal as “anything that a person likes to see, a quality of charm, pleasing design, simplicity, communication, and magnetism”. While the term appeal could be described simply as something somebody likes to look at, explaining why they like to look at it and why the picture is appealing is a much tougher question to answer. Bancroft (2006, p.51) said something that has...
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