The Nine

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THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION and THE FRAMING OF THE CONSTITUTION

1.What was the first permanent colony founded in America? When was it founded? -Jamestown
-1607

2.What was the first representative assembly in America?
-The House of Burgess

3.Which foreign nations controlled which geographic areas of North America in 1760? -France controlled the interior of North America (as well as Canada) -Spain controlled Florida and the west
-England controlled the 13 colonies that occupied the Atlantic coastal region 4.Which nations were the major opponents in the Seven Years War? -It pitted France, Austria, Russia, Saxony, Sweden and Spain against Great Britain and Prussia.

5.What was the conflict’s connection to the French and Indian War? -It was the North American part of the conflict and France fought the British for control of North America.

6.Who fought whom on America soil during the French and Indian War? -French and Indian vs. British and American colonist

7.What was the Proclamation of 1763?
-effectively drew a line down the Appalachians and forbade Americans to move west of it

a.What was its effect with respect to the Americans?
i.It was not well received in the colonies because the Americans went a long time with no representatives in Parliament to speak for them, so all laws passed in England were unilaterally imposed.

8.What was the first direct tax on the American people?
-Stamp Act (1764)
This was the first direct tax on the Americans. It taxed newspapers, playing cards, legal documents and other printed materials. (The colonists despised the tax more for its impingement on American sovereignty than its revenue-raising 360 •4+5component.) In reaction, the colonists rioted and boycotted British goods. This led to a rapid repeal of the Stamp Tax. The violent protests, organized throughout the Colonies by a network of secret organizations known as the Sons of Liberty, caused the Royal Governors to flee to British forts, the stamp distributors to resign, and the Americans to physically demolish the stamp houses

9.What were the facts surrounding the Boston Massacre?
-The British had stationed troops in Boston to keep order. (Massachusetts was a hotbed for revolutionary activity and Boston was one of the most difficult areas for the British to control. -On May 5, a Boston mob attacked a British sentry and a group of British soldiers was sent to rescue him. In the melee, the crowd taunted the soldiers and dared them to fire. The British did and five Americans were killed. Americans in all of the colonies were outraged. a.What was John Adams’ role in the aftermath of the affair? i.John Adam’s represented the British soldiers in there trial

10.What were the provisions of the Coercive Acts?
-Closed the Port of Boston (and stationed a British Fleet outside the city to ensure that the port remained closed); -Closed the Massachusetts Assembly and replaced it with a royal assembly; -Placed restrictions on free movement and the freedom of speech of the citizens of Boston and surrounding communities.

11.What was “Common Sense” and who wrote it?
-A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine during the American Revolution a.What did it advocate?
i.Independence and anti-British monarchial control

12.Approximately what percentage of Americans remained loyal to England throughout the Revolutionary period? -1/3 of colonist remained loyal to Britain (Tories)

13.Were there written predecessors to the Declaration of Independence? -Yes
-there were dozens of similar local “declarations” published in May and June of 1776 (e.g., resolves of the New York mechanics, Pennsylvania militiamen, Massachusetts town meetings, etc.). Most of these local declarations mirrored Jefferson’s – or vice-versa – by containing a philosophical preface, a bill of indictment against King George, and a formal commitment to independence. Further, Jefferson’s words...
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