The nervous system develops

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Chapter 12 Study Guide:

The nervous system develops from which embryonic tissue?

Describe the development of the neural tube.

What are the 3 primary brain vesicles?

What are the secondary brain vesicles? What adult brain structure does each secondary vesicle become?

What are ventricles and what is their function?

What percentage of the adult brain is made up by the cerebral hemispheres?

Describe the following terms:

• Gyri

• Sulci

• Fissures

• Longitudinal fissure

• Transverse cerebral fissure

• Central sulcus

• Pre/post central gyri

• Lateral sulcus

• Insula

What are the lobes of the adult brain?

Where is the “conscious mind” found?

What are the 3 kinds of functional areas found in the cerebral cortex?

Describe the following motor areas of the cerebral cortex:

• Primary motor cortex

• Premotor cortex

• Broca’s area

• Frontal eye field

Describe the following sensory areas of the cerebral cortex:

• Primary somatosensory cortex

• Somatosensory associate cortex

• Primary visual cortex

• Visual association area

• Primary auditory cortex

• Auditory association area

• Olfactory cortex

• Gustatory cortex

• Visceral sensory area

• Vestibular cortex

What are the motor/sensory homunculi?

What are the functions of the multimodal association areas?

What are the 3 parts of the multimodal association areas?

Define lateralization.

Describe the following white matter fibers and tracts:

• Commissures

• Corpus callosum

• Association fibers

• Projection fibers

Describe the location of the diencephalon.

What structure makes up 80% of the diencephalon?

What are the functions of the thalamus?

Where is the hypothalamus located?

What are the homeostatic roles of the hypothalamus?

Where is the pineal gland located and what hormone does it secrete?

What are the 3 major regions of the brain stem? What are the main functions of each region?

Where is the cerebellum located and what are its primary functions?

Where is the limbic system located and what are its primary functions?

What is the reticular formation and what is its function?

How do we measure the electrical activity of the brain?

How are states of consciousness graded?

How is sleep different from a coma?

Describe the 2 major types of sleep.

What is the circadian rhythm?

Why is sleep important?

Which areas of the brain deal with language?

Compare and contrast the stages of memory.

Describe each of the 3 meninges that protect the brain.

What is the role of cerebrospinal fluid?

What is the role of the blood-brain barrier?

At what level of the spine does the spinal cord terminate?

Describe the conus medularis and the cauda equina.

Draw and label the following structures on a cross section of a spinal cord:

• Gray commissure

• Dorsal/ventra/lateral horns

• Dorsal/ventral roots

• Dorsal root ganglion

• Spinal nerves

• Dorsal/ventral rootlets

Describe 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order neurons in ascending pathways to the brain.

Describe the functions of the following ascending pathways:

• Dorsal column-medial lemniscus

• Anterolateral

• Spinocerebellar

Are the ascending pathways motor or sensory?

Describe the functions of the descending tracts. Are they motor or sensory?
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