The Nerve Cell

Topics: Neuron, Nervous system, Brain Pages: 2 (617 words) Published: January 15, 2013
Within the body, there are billions of cells that are essential to living – these are called nerve cells. Nerve cells, also known as neurons, “are the basic information processing structures” (Stufflebeam). There are about 100 billion of these neurons in our nervous system and are the most essential cell in it. Located in brain as well as the spinal, there are different types of nerve cells; including: sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneuron (Boeree). The neuron is a cell that is structured similarly to a common animal cell, but has a few things that make it different. The main part of the cell is called the soma, also known as the cell body. It contains the nucleus, which is in general terms the control center of the cell and contains the genetic material of the cell (Boeree). It also contains cytosol, a nucleolus, a Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, mitochondria, and a rough endoplasmic reticulum (Cardoso). Cytosol is the watery liquid inside the cell that holds the cell together while the nucleolus is an organelle inside the nucleus that is responsible for ribosome synthesis. The Golgi apparatus is the structure that sorts, packages, and modifies proteins whereas ribosomes are the ones that are actually involved in the protein synthesis. The mitochondria are the power house of the cell, which means it breaks up food and makes it into energy. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is the thing that is responsible for protein synthesis. However, that is where the similarities end. Differences within the cell include its dendrites and axons. Dendrites are branch-like things that extend from the cell body and receive messages from other neurons (Boeree). The axon then transmits these signals to other neurons. Both are one of the three most important organelles in the neurons, including the nucleus. The three work efficiently not unlike a machine where the nucleus controls the whole cell while the dendrites receive messages and the axon sends them to the brain. Neurons...
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