This was an area of Eurasia that included the Caucasians including Azerbaijan, the central Asia steppes including Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan, the...valley of the Indus or that area between India and Pakistan, andthe southern Ukraine with the lower Danube and Bulgaria.
Scholars regard the Scythians as an Iranian nomadic peoples peaking several languages but mostly Iranian (or Parsi which later became Farsi).
Scythians have left important ethnological markers such astamgas (brand marks) and kurgans (permanent cemeteries). A2500 year old mummy was recently found in the snow capped mountains of Mongolia with blond hair, tattoos, and weaponry.The mummy was preserved by ice and was found at 2600 meters.This find extended the range of the territory further east of the Scythians than had been previously thought.
It should be pointed out that the last ice age ended about 9,000 to10,000 years ago, or about the 8 th millennium BC. Carbon 14dating has allowed archaeologists to trace the emergence of the Scythians to the Sayan-Altay mountains from 3000BC to about500BC. These mountains are where Russia, China, Mongolia,and Kazakhstan come together. They are also known as thehomeland of the Turks. The mean elevation in the central area is about 4500 meters. About 900 BC the Scythians began awestern migration.
They were nomadic warriors who rode horses bareback and who used archers, and the women fought along side the men. Women dressed like men. They were described by Homer and Herodotus. Herodotus, the Greek historian wrote about them in his Histories of the 5th Century. They became slave traders,merchants, and shippers. They were described as long haired warriors who were ferocious. Edmund Spenser wrote that the primary nation that settled Ireland were the Scythians , and that they also settled Scotland. It has been shown that the Scythians landed in Cornwall. In Shakespeares King Lear, Act 1, Scene1, he writes of the barbarous Scythian.
It is thought that tribes of the Scythians settled Greece, and also moved into eastern Europe.
Haplo types from current Y Chromosome DNA studies show that Central Asia was a mixing pot of several population groups.Haplo type R1a and R1b is found in eastern and western Asia as well as Europe and the United States.
Ancient Greece was formed in the third millennium BC when people known as Greeks migrated south to the Balkans in waves,the last being the Dorian invasion about 2300 BC. 1600-1100 BC...is described as Mycenaean Greece known for the Wars against Troy as narrated by Homer. Ancient Greece ended with the end of the reign of Alexander the Great in 323 BC.
Herodotus, 484-425BC, was a Dorian Greek historian who is regarded as the father of history, and who was the author of The Histories- a 6 volume series.
Herodotus described the Cimmerians of the north Black Seacoast as a distinctly autonomous tribe expelled by the Scythians. The Cimmerians in 714 BC were in the region of Azerbaijan, and in the 7 and 8th century BC were in southern Russia and Ukraine. Their language was Iranian.
There were many off shoots of the Cimmerians. Numerous Celtic and Germanic peoples descended from the Cimmerians.The etymology of Wales is said to descend from the Cimmerians. The Celts in France were known as Gauls. The Celts spread into present day Italy where remnants in the town of Doccia, in the province of Emilia-Romagna, showcase Celtichouses in very good condition dating from the 4th century BC.
The west Germanic tribe of the Sicambri descended from the Cimmerians. The Sicambri were located along the right bank of the Rhine and appear about 55 BC. They fought several warswith Rome, namely one led by Gaius Juliusm Caesar. In16 BC they defeated the Roman army under Marcus Lollius.About 11 BC they were forced to move to the left side of the Rhine by Nero...
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