The Neolithic Revolution

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Research Paper
“The Neolithic Revolution”

Prepared by:
group student
Supervisor:

-2011-
Contents:
1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………..3 2. Literature review……………………………………………………………………..4 3. Neolithic revolution…………………………………………………………………..6 4. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………….9 5. Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………10

Introduction
The most important technological development ever to occur in human history was the domestication of plants (agriculture) and animals (pastoralism). Together these developments are called the Neolithic Revolution. To understand how the Neolithic Revolution occurred it is necessary to understand the economic system it replaced. Until the Neolithic, and in most areas for a long time after, all humans engaged in an economic activity called "hunting and gathering". This system is called "food extraction" as opposed to "food production" by agriculture and pastoralism. This period, which occurred between 12,000 and 8,000 years ago, brought along many profound changes to human society and culture, including the creation of cities and permanent dwellings, labor specialization, the baking of bread, personal property, more complex hierarchical social structures, non-agricultural crafts, slavery, the state, official marriage, personal inheritance, and more. I’ve chosen this topic because we can’t imagine our life, if there were not such a revolution. What would we be without the Neolithic Revolution? I think without the Neolithic Revolution I probably wouldn’t be writing this paper right now. We wouldn't be staying in one place for long, because we would be moving around hunting and gathering for our food. We wouldn't have time for learning, or going to work, or a lot of the things we do. The Neolithic Revolution was the most transformative event in history, it was the beginning of agriculture. With not having to hunt and chase for our food we could stay in one spot, which developed into urban centers. This gave us the ability to trade because not everyone had to spend there time on getting food. We still have people working on the farms, but since not everyone had to do that. Now, probably, no one can imagine having to wake up and go hunt for your food. Because of the revolution we have farms and we can just simply go to the grocery store. This made everything a lot more convenient. Revolution allowed the development of urban centers, trade and most of the other things we consider to be components of “civilization”. In this work I’m going to describe following questions:

* Why and how did people adopt farming and domestication? * When they did it?
* How did it spread?
* What are the consequences?
I will cover three scholarly articles to understand the topic theme. Literature review
Now, at the beginning, I think that it would be better to start with the article that describes the first question that I’m going to answer at, “why and how did people adopt farming and domestication?” Jared Diamond, an American scientist, in his work proposed the following: “Food production could not possibly have arisen through a conscious decision, because the world's first farmers had around them no model of farming to observe, hence they could not have known that there was a goal of domestication to strive for, and could not have guessed the consequences that domestication would bring for them. Although humans had been manipulating wild plants and animals for a long time, hunter-gatherer behaviour began to change only because of increasingly unpredictable climate, decreases in big-game species that were hunters' first-choice prey, and increasing human occupation of available habitats. To decrease the risk of unpredictable variation in food supply, people broadened their diets to second- and third-choice foods, which included more small game, plus plant foods requiring much preparation, such as grinding, leaching and...
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