The Nature of Teaching
The nature of teaching has been conceptualized and explained n countless ways, one conceptualized is that teaching is the act of providing activities that facilitate learning, another view runs likes this”Teaching is something that takes place only when learning does. No matter what the teacher is doing in her classes, if the student are not learning something significant, she is not teaching, when the student fails, the teacher fails more. Quite similar to the two foregoing definitions is one attributed to a writer named Jacetot : To teach is to cause to learn.” according to the conceptualization by ho howee (1970),the teacher is not a dispenser of knowledge nor a person in change of the education that goes on in the classroom. The teacher's role, in Howee view, is one of producing the climate, providing the resources, stimulating the student to explore, investigate and seek anwer, in a rich environment, the teacher becomes a guide and facilator than a director.
An equally intersting conceptualized of teaching is the one formula by Brown Thornston(1979) who delineated certain ditinction between taeching and educational information giving, these authors consider both instructional functions essential but different from one another. Tn their view, information giving may usually be performed quite adequetly and economically through planned use of books, records and tapes, film or computers. Teaching, on contribution of the instruction as motivation, assigner, interrogation clarifier, illumination, evaluator, and director of the intellectual exchange that leads to learning. Also worthy of our consideration the view of teaching propounced by Silberman(1966) who states that teaching is both art and science.teaching is an art because it calls for the exercise of talent and creativity and teaching is a science for it involves a reptoire of teachniques, procedures and skills that can be systematically studied and described, and therefore transmitted and improved. Science consists of knowing while art refers to doing and implies skill and aesthetic excelence. Closely related to the foregoing conceptuaization is the one held by Owen(1978) who maintains that teachers should be an artists.
The humanistics movement in education has elicted the view, as exemplified by patterson(1973) who states that teaching is not the application of a system or methods, but a personal relationship according to this view, it is more important to recognize ehat kind of person the teachet is than what her system or methods is. In words, how a teacher and how a teacher acts are important than ehat she teaches.
Acts of Teaching
Taching involves a varity of actions. Accordingly, the acts of teaching may be grouped into three categories(Greene.1981), as folow:
1.) Logical Acts- includes exploring, concluding, inferring, giving reason, ammasing evidences, demonstrating, defining, and comparing.
2.)Strategic Acts- include motivating, counselling, evaluating, planning, encouraging, desciplining, and questioning.
3.)Institutional Acts- include collecting money, champeroning, patrolling the hall, attending meeting. Taking attendance, consulting parents, and keeping reports.
The term teaching behavior to sets by the teacher which occur in the context of classroom integration (Flanders,1970). A scholar the nameSmith(1960) has classified such acts activities into three classes:
1.) Linguistic Behavior includes what teacher say, since instruction is. To or considerable extent, done through speech, for instance, teachers give assignement, ask questions, comment on responses, encourage and praise, and sometimes exhost and scold. In all of these instances, teachers use specch.
2.)Expressive Behavior accompanies all speech, for this type of behavior includes tone of voice, facial espression, and motions of the hands, arms, eyes, and head, or other parts of the body. These...