THE NATURE OF SEMANTIC CHANGE
Presented by group 9:
Riva Nugraha Jiwa 0910733154
Alfi Nurhidayati 1010731008
Nadia Turrahmi 1010732014
FACULTY OF HUMANITIES
70 years ago, Edward Sapir introduced a new concept of linguistics. He said that language moved on every time and then created their own forms and never static. Every word, every grammatical element, proverbs, sounds and accents configured which was changed slowly and this was the ways how a language could long lasting. This concept of language made the other linguists interested. The change of meaning could happen because of some reasons, according to Millet a meaning could change easily because of the discontinuous from one generation to the other generations, the blur of meaning, the lost of motivation, the appearance of polysemy, there are some ambiguous contexts, vocabulary structures, and so on. The nature of semantic change can be divided into some categories, metaphor, metonymy, popular etymology, ellipsis, and also some consequences change of meaning.
A. The nature of semantic change
Aksioma Leibniz said “natura non facit saltus” that means the nature changed indirectly and slowly, this sentence also can we applied in change of meaning. Every changing had their each reason and always related and associated from the old meaning into the new meaning. One of semantics tradition looks up meaning as “the interrelationship between name and meaning”. So, we can conclude that change of meaning divide into two types: change of meaning based on association of meaning-meaning, and also name-name. Every type can be differs into similarity ad contiguity. 1. Metaphor
Metaphor is important in language because it can make them more creative and aesthetics, it is common in literary field such as poem. Metaphor has some functions in everyday life, there are as the motivation, expression ways, as the source of synonym and polysemy, to fill the blank in vocabulary, and the way to express the emotion, etc. The structure of metaphor is simple, it always said one thing is another thing. It does not use the word as, like, and comparative words and other, this case make the reader try to find the similarities. For example: a) Her home is a prison, in this case her home have same characteristic of prison, we can imagine that she can’t leave her home, she tapped inside, and maybe afraid of the outside. b) The police man let him off by a yellow card, in this sentence ‘yellow card’ refers to warning, the original sense is in soccer player a yellow card that the referee shows to the player when cautioning them and give the second chance to introspect themselves. c) in Indonesian language we can take the example Gonzales menanduk bola, we know that Gonzales is a human and he did the work which is did by an animal buffalo. In this case, menanduk have same meaning with the other, because it refers to an action using a head, in human we call menyundul and in buffalo we cal menanduk. * Anthropomorphic metaphor
The person who is interested toward this kind of metaphor is Giambattista Vico, he said that in every language the most part of expression refer to inanimate, compared by transferring from any part of body, sense, and also the emotion of human being. For example: a) in Indonesian language: jantung kota, bahu jalan, mulut sungai, etc. b) in English language muscle comes from Latin language musculus that means ‘little mouse’. * Animal metaphor
This category applied for animal or inanimate types, many plants using animal’s name to call them. For example: a) lidah buaya, kumis kucing, jambu monyet, etc. b) in English there are some plants with animal’s name goat’s-beard and dog’s tail. Beside that, there are animal’s name transferred into human being for describe humor, irony, and other. For example: si beo, the speaker use this word toward the other because they have same...
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