The Napolionic Era

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The French Revolution

1769:Aug 15:Napoleon born

1785:Napoleon becomes Second Lieutenant

1789:May 5:The French Estates-General meets at Versailles Jun 17:The Third Estate meets separately and declares itself National Assembly Jul 14:Storming of Bastille
Aug 14:Nobles and clergy in the National Assembly renounce their privileges thus ending feudalism Aug 26:Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen

Franco-British relationship (1789-1815)
- Initially Britain admired France -> Louis executed – Britain looses admiration - 1793: France declares war on Britain
- Napoleon wants to control English channel
- France looses at Battle of Trafalgar
- Napoleon now wants Continental System (blockade)

1791:Sep 3:Constitution passed

1792:Apr 20:France declares war on Austria
Aug 10:Robespierre elected as Commune of Paris
Sep 21:National Convention meets for the first time (abolishes monarchy, establishes republic, Louis XVI for treason)

1793:Jan 21:Louis XVI guillotined
Aug 4: Jacobin Constitution announced (never enforced)
Sep 17:Reign of Terror starts with Law of Suspects

1794:Jun 26:French victory over Austria at Fleurus
Jul 27:Robespierre arrested/ guillotined -> End of Reign of Terror
Why did it end?
- Because of those who wanted more power for the Committee of Public Safety, and a more radical policy than he was willing to allow, and the moderates who opposed Revolutionary Government a - Advocating Terror would mean adopting the policy of a convicted enemy of the Republic, endangering the advocate's own head

1795:Sep 23:5 men of Directorate is appointed to run country -> Constitution of Directors Oct 3:Directorate stormed -> Napoleon Bonaparte becomes commander of the home army

1797:Oct 17:Peace between France and Austria

1799:Dec 15:Consular constitution (Napoleon is First Consul) -> End of Revolution

Outcome of Revolution:Pros
-State belongs to people -> beginning of constitutionalism -Equality -> privileges based on birth replaced by wealth and education -Freedom of speech and religion -> development of public discussion (political parties) -Free press

-Even though people wanted change Napoleon crowns himself -> old system -Hard to change position in society -Estates still exist in society -privileges based on property -> richer people have advantage

1801:Treaty of Lunéville: French territories from left side of Rhine now officially part of France, right side of Rhine under French control

1802:Napoleon appointed Consul for Life

1803: Napoleon reorganizes Germany:
- Reichsdeputationshauptschluss (Secularization (Ecclesiastical property is given to secular states of ecclesiastical lands), Mediatisation (Process of annexing the land of one sovereign monarchy to another) of smaller – 350 states become 40) - Pros: larger political, clerical unities – national consciousness develops – some gain more land - Cons: loss of money – church looses power – school, nursing, care of poor become state affair

1804:Dec 2:Napoleon crowns himself ‘Emperor of the French’
Justification:- End oppression
- Dismantle old European regimes
- Provide liberty, equality and prosperity
- Protect France
- Secure military supremacy
- Export gains of Revolution
Code Napoleon/Civile passed: laws about rights and duties, religion (any religion allowed), marriage, divorce, inheritance, property, education (state schools for boys, stress on military values, science,...
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