1. Disscuss the role of two electrolytes in musculoskeletal function (175 words) The two electrolytes we have chosen are Calcium and Phosphate. Calcium is the main ion contributing for muscle contraction, Calcium flood in and act as a trigger for contraction, because as calcium binds to the regulatory protein on act in filaments, they change their shape and position on the thin elements, (Marieb 2009), The phosphate ion, participates in acid base balance, strengthen bones Plasma level 2.5-4.5mEq/L. It makes muscle contract as well and important for maintenance of bone health. Calcium is necessary for bone and teeth formation, and also muscle contraction (Herlihy, 2009). Calcium and phosphate interact to create dense bone material. Both electrolytes should be in balance, and the calculated balance proportion of both electrolytes of calcium to phosphates is 2-1, which proportion makes human bones healthy strong and strength (National kidney Federation, 2010). These two electrolytes as calcium provide muscle contraction to give Shannon ability to move muscles to do the work and phosphate strengthens the bones making bones, thus preventing osteoporosis. The deficiency of these ions is the reason why she may be suffering from muscle and joint aches. The balance of calcium and phosphate ions is essential for Nurse Shannon’s good health. Imbalance of phosphate ion can cause disorder such as hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia. Imbalance of calcium ion can cause disorder such as hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia. (Porth& Matfin 2009) 2. Choose 3 different cells of the musculoskeletal system and describe their structure and function, making links to the maintenance of healthy function in the above scenario. (300 words) 1. Osteogenic cells
Are un- specialised stem cells (undifferentiated cells that can divide produce new cells derived from mesentyme), the tissue from which all connective tissues are formed. They divide creating osteoblasts. Osteogenic Cells are responsible for trauma response. They are found in the bone tissue, which contracts endosteum and periosteum. These cells are also responsible for the healing process to start once trauma is experienced. Osteogenic cells heal by calling on other cells, such as osteoblasts or bone forming cells and osteoclasts or bone destroying cells. When they all work together they repair the damage done to the bones. If Nurse Shannon suffers a trauma related to the bone such as a fracture, osteogenic cells are the ones which provide the initial response. (Jenkins, Kemnitz, Tortora, 2010) 2. Osteoblasts Cells
They are bone –building cells responsible for the formation of the bone matrix. Bone formation happens in two stages, ossification and calcification. Osteoblasts take the minerals from the blood deposit them on the bone. They synthesize and secrete collagen, fibres and other organic components needed to build extracellular matrix of osseous as they initiate calcification. As osteoblasts surround themselves with extracellular matrix of osseous tissue, they become trapped in their secretions and become osteocytes. Osteoblasts are also responsible for mineralization of this matrix. Zinc, copper and sodium are some of the minerals required in this process (Porth & Matfin, 2009).
Mature bone cells, are found in tiny cavities called lacunae, which are interconnected by slender channels called canaliculi. Each osteocyte has delicate fingerlike cytoplasmic processes that reach into the canaliculi to contact the processes from neighbouring osteocytes. They maintain the bone tissue. They have multiple functions; some reabsorb bone matrix other deposits it, so they contribute to both the bone density and blood concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions. They also maintain metabolism and they participate in nutrient and waste exchange through the blood (Saladin, 2007). 3. Select any specific muscle in Nurse...