The Modern Media: the Impact on Foreign Policy

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THE MODERN MEDIA: THE IMPACT ON FOREIGN POLICY

A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE Strategy

by SIMON J. HULME. MAJOR, ROYAL ENGINEERS, UNITED KINGDOM Graduate Junior Division of The Staff College, British Army Command and Staff College, Camberley, Surrey, England, 1996

Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 2001

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE THESIS APPROVAL PAGE

Name of Candidate: Major Simon J. Hulme Thesis Title: The Modern Media: The Impact on Foreign Policy

Approved by:

, Thesis Committee Chairman Colonel Lee J. Hockman, M.M.C.

, Member Michael D. Pearlman, Ph.D.

, Member Mr. Lincoln Benedicto, M.A.

, Member Mr. Dennis M. Giangreco

Accepted this 1st day of June 2001 by:

, Director, Graduate Degree Programs Philip J. Brookes, Ph.D. The opinions and conclusions expressed herein are those of the student author and do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College or any other governmental agency. (References to this study should include the foregoing statement.) ii

ABSTRACT THE MODERN MEDIA: THE IMPACT ON FOREIGN POLICY, by MAJ Simon J Hulme, 96 pages.

The end of the Cold War brought a change in role for a majority of the armed forces of the western nations. The operational emphasis moved from defensive posturing and expected total war, to employment possibilities across the whole spectrum of conflict. It seems that the western military forces have been employed as tools to further foreign policy outside the normally expected and declared policies of their governments. Moreover, it also seems; that western governments flex their positions with regard to foreign policies based on the media coverage of international events. The primary thesis question was designed to discover whether the media has had an effect on foreign policy or not. This was broken into three parts: (1) the possibility of media effect; (2) the chance of employment of that effect, and (3) a short recent historical study of the media effects, with regard to foreign policy. Although the thesis concluded that the modern media did have an effect on foreign policy, research has led the author to develop a basic theoretical model to assist in the definition of media effect when compared to certain foreign policy issues. It is suggested that further study develop this initial outline and model.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to take this opportunity to thank all those people who have made the completion of this thesis possible. My thanks of course go to my committee, who gave their valuable time to reading the numerous drafts that were produced. My special thanks go to my wife Louise, who not only had to endure countless hours alone, whilst I sat typing or reading, but when I did finally emerge from the study, she was subjected to hours of conversation relating to the thesis. My appreciation goes to her most of all, because she gave birth of our first child William whilst this paper was being written, and still managed to take care of the three of us while I remained at study. William also played his own part in the production of this thesis; his smile provided the light and inspiration to continue studies on the long dark winter nights of research. Because of the two of them, this thesis has been completed.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page APPROVAL PAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LIST OF TABLES . . . . ....
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