«the Meaning of the Word»

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, SCIENCE, YOUTH AND SPORTS OF UKRAINE
IZMAIL STATE UNIVERSITY OF HUMANITIES

THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND TRANSLATION DEPARTMENT

COURSE PROJECT
«The meaning of the word»

Course Project in English
Year IV
Group 431
Ann Nyagu

Research Supervisor:
L.P. Gulidova

Izmail, 2011

Contents
Introduction………………………………………………………………3-4 1. CHAPTER 1. Theoretical part…………………………………………….5 2. The lexical meaning versus notion………………………………………7-11 3. Grammatical meaning…………………….……………………………11-13 .1.3.1. Meaning of singularity…………………………………………………13-14 .1.3.2. Meaning of plurarity……………………………………………………..14 4. Denotative and connotative meaning…………………………………..14-16 .1.4.1. Polysemy…………………………………………………………………16 .1.4.2. The «bias words» ………………………………………………………..20 .1.4.3. Polysemy like phenomenon……………………………………………22-23 5. Conclusion on Chapter 1…………………………………………………24 .2. CHAPTER 2. Practical part………………………………………………25 .2.1. Homonyms……………………………………………………………..25-27 .2.1.2. Classificaton of homonyms……………………………………………27-28 .2.1.3.Various types of classification for homonyms………………………...28-31 .2.2.Synonyms……………………………………………………………...31-33 .2.2.1.Classification of synonyms………………………………………………33 .2.3.The using of word meaning in morphemes……………………………33-35 .2.4.Conclusion on Chapter 2………………………………………………..36 .3.General conclusion………………………………………………………37 .4.Bibliography……………………………………………………………..38 .5. Appendix……………………………………………………………….39-40

Introduction

The theme of our course-paper is «The meaning of the word». In the first chapter of the work tells about the branch of linguistic that concerned with the the meaning of words and word equivalents, about the different types of meaning.

The branch of linguistics concerned with the meaning of words and word equivalents is called semantics or semasiology. The name comes from the Greek sēmasiā ‘signification’ (from sēma ‘sign’ sēmantikos ‘significant’ and logos ‘learning’). If treated diachronically, semasiology studies the change in meaning which words undergo. Descriptive synchronic approach demands a study not of individual words but of semantic structures typical of the language studied, and of its general semantic system. The main objects of semasiological study treated in this book are as follows: semantic development of words, its causes and classification, relevant distinctive features and types of lexical meaning, its causes and classification, relevant distinctive features and types of lexical meaning, polysemy and semantic structure of word, semantic groupings and connections in the vocabulary system, i.e. synonyms, antonyms, etc.

The problem is not new. M. Bréal, for instance, devoted much attention to a semasiological treatment of grammar. A German philologist H. Hatzfeld held that semasiology should include syntax, and that many of its chapters need historical and cultural comments. The problem has recently acquired a certain urgency and a revival of interest in semantic syntax is reflected in a large number of publications by Moscow, Leningrad and Kiev scholars. An exact definition of any basic term is no easy task altogether. In the case of lexical meaning it becomes especially difficult due to the complexity of the process by which language and human mind serve to reflect outward reality and to adapt it to human needs. The definition of lexical meaning has been attempted more than once in accordance with the main principles of different linguistic schools. The disciples of F. de Saussure consider meaning to be the relation between the object or notion named, and the name itself. Descriptive linguistics of the Bloomfieldian trend defines the meaning as the situation in which the word is uttered. Both ways of approach afford no possibility of a further investigation of semantic problems in strictly linguistic...
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