The Long Term Evolution (Lte)

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  • Topic: 3GPP Long Term Evolution, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, WiMAX
  • Pages : 9 (3003 words )
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  • Published : April 2, 2013
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Abstact
To create a continuous competitive market and deliver more services via mobile broadband to customers, the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) developed an evolved 3G technology called LTE which tends towards the 4G technology. This work highlights the overview of LTE as well as the expectation which the technology is expected to meet which attributes its advantages. Being the first true IP-Packet technology with new architecture, the network architecture evolution is also discussed and the technologies used. The deployment timeline as well as the challenges encountered which has necessitated the advancement of the technology. Contents

1Abstact0
2INTRODUCTION1
2.1ADVANTAGES AND TARGETS OF LTE2
2.2LTE ARCHITECTURE2
2.2.1ACCESS NETWORK2
2.2.2SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE EVOLUTION (SAE)4
3LTE DEVELOPMENT TECHNOLOGY5
4LTE DEPLOYMENT AND CHALLENGES5
4.1DEPLOYMENT5
4.2CHALLENGES6
5FUTURE WORK OF LTE (LTE-ADVANCE)6
6SUMMARY6
7REFERENCE7

INTRODUCTION
The Long Term Evolution (LTE) is one of the latest steps in an advancing series of Mobile telecommunication system. The series which began in 1947 with the cells concept development by Bell Labs saw its First Generation (1G) in the 1980s– the first mobile communication system that received large acceptability with lots of independently-developed systems worldwide. This generation only provided voice service and transited in the early 1990s to its Second Generation (2G) known as GSM, a robust interoperable digital system introducing voice, SMS and data services which is developed jointly by telecommunication companies coming together under the European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) which made global roaming to be possible. The 2G was only operational in Europe as other regions and standard organisation outside Europe had their own standards which made the ETSI 2G not to be globally interoperable. The quest for globally acceptable standard and interoperability and possibilities for a range of new services brought about the Third Generation (3G) which complies with the International Mobile Telecommunication – 2000 (IMT-2000) specification by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Figure 1 shows the transition from GSM towards LTE. (Orlando 2009; Muhannad 2011; Jonathan 2011) GSM

GPRS
EDGE
UMTS R99
UMTS R4
UMTS R5
5
UMTS R6
6
UMTS R7

UMTS R8

2G, Digital Voice/Signalling, SMS, 2.4/4.8/9.6 kbps
3G, Improved Coding/Modulation, 236 – 473 kbps
WCDMA, Circuit & Packet Cores, DL 384 kbps, UL 128 kbps
Efficient softswitch core
2.5G, Packet Core, 56 – 114 kbps, internet/Email

Shift to all IP – IMS, HSDPA, Peak DL 14.4 Mbps
MBMS, HSUPA, Peak UL 5.76Mbps
HSPA+, MIMO, Peak UL 22Mbps, Peak DL 42 Mbps
LTE
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) was established in 1998 uniting the telecommunication standard development organizations which include ETSI of Europe, ATIS of USA, CCSA of China, TTA of Korea, and ARIB, TCC of Japan. LTE is a significant project of the 3GPP, initially proposed in the Toronto conference in 2004 and officially started as LTE work item in 2006 and concluded in the Release 8 specification. As the 3G Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) which was created and upgraded consistently by the 3GPP steadily increases its penetration of the world’s wireless communications market with its likelihood of becoming the primary standard used by all wireless carriers, the need to ensure the continuity of the competitiveness, and the user demand for higher data rates and Quality of Service (QoS) among others necessitated the work on LTE which is a transition from 3G towards 4G. (Erik et al 2007; Muhannad 2011; 3GPP 2012b, c)

Figure 1: LTE evolution (Muhannad 2011; 3GPP 2012b)
0

ADVANTAGES AND TARGETS OF LTE
LTE as the first standard that is fully IP and Packet based has to satisfy a set of high-level requirements which makes it an evolution of the 3G and...
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