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For places, institutions and objects named after this person, see Rizal (disambiguation))_._
Born to a wealthy family, Rizal earned a Bachelor of Arts at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila. He enrolled in both the schools of Medicine and Philosophy and Letters at the University of Santo Tomas. Then he traveled to Madrid, Spain to continue studies at the Universidad Central de Madrid, earning the degree of Licentiate in Medicine. He attended the University of Paris before completing his second doctorate at the University of Heidelberg. Rizal was conversant in at least ten languages. His most famous works were his two novels, Noli me Tangere) and El filibusterismo. These social commentaries on the Philippines formed the nucleus of literature that both inspired dissent among peaceful reformists and spurred the militancy of armed revolutionaries against the Spanish regime.
Rizal founded La Liga Filipina (The Philippine League), a civic organization working to reform Spanish colonial rule. Rizal proposed institutional reforms by peaceful means, but the extent of his support for outright revolution has been subject to scholarly debate. Scholars agree that his political leadership and unjust execution by the government were major inspirations for the Philippine Revolution, led by Andres Bonifacio and Emilio Aguinaldo.
Francisco Rizal Mercado II
José Rizal's parents, Francisco Engracio Rizal Mercado y Alejandra II (1818–1898) and Teodora Morales Alonso Realonda y Quintos (1827–1911), were prosperous farmers who were granted lease of a hacienda and an accompanying rice farm by the Dominicans. Rizal was the seventh child of their eleven children, namely: Saturnina (1850–1913), Paciano (1851–1930), Narcisa (1852–1939), Olympia (1855–1887), Lucia (1857–1919), Maria (1859–1945), José Protasio (1861–1896), Concepcion (1862–1865), Josefa... [continues]
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