The Large Hadron Collider
The Large Hadron Collider is the largest, most powerful, and most expensive particle accelerator in the world. It cost 20 countries over $9 billion to build and finance the project. The Large Hadron Collider was built by CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. CERN is composed of 20 member nations with the purpose of researching and conducting experiments on particle physics. The purpose of the Large Hadron Collider is to assist in answering fundamental questions in physics in order to increase our knowledge of the universe. The Large Hadron Collider will increase our knowledge of the universe through experiments that will help find and understand things such as antimatter and dark matter in the Higgs boson that are necessary to understanding the fundamentals of the universe. So far there has been little to no practical application for Large Hadron Collider research, causing many people to argue that the research from the Large Hadron Collider is not worth the cost. Others believe that the Large Hadron Collider represents a danger to the world and the universe as a whole and have gone as far as to try to stop the Large Hadron Collider from being completed. Still, despite this, CERN is considering continuing to upgrade and increase the power of the Large Hadron Collider to form the Super Large Hadron Collider. The overall questions relevant to this issue are whether the research from the Large Hadron Collider is worth the cost and if the Large Hadron Collider should be stopped or continue to be upgraded and developed into the more powerful Super Large Hadron Collider. The Large Hadron Collider is an important tool for science and is the key to answering many open questions about the workings of the universe. It is for this reason that the project should be continued. CERN is the organization behind the Large Hadron Collider. CERN is the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The acronym CERN comes from the organization’s original name, the Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire. Throughout the years CERN has been involved in many experiments that have dramatically increased the fundamental knowledge of the universe in physics. Plans for the creation of CERN began near the end of World War II. “A handful of visionary scientists imagined creating a European atomic physics laboratory. Raoul Dautry, Pierre Auger and Lew Kowarski in France, Edoardo Amaldi in Italy and Niels Bohr in Denmark were among these pioneers. Such a laboratory would not only unite European scientists but also allow them to share the increasing costs of nuclear physics facilities” (History highlights). The first proposal for the CERN was in 1949 at the European Cultural Conference in Lausanne. In 1951 a provisional council was formed with 11 countries. The Organization for Nuclear Research officially came into being with 12 member states on September 29, 1954. “The 600 MeV Synchrocyclotron, built in 1957, was CERN’s first accelerator and it provided beams for CERN’s first particle and nuclear physics experiments” (History highlights). As the Synchrocyclotron started to concentrate more on nuclear physics, particle physics began research into development of the Proton Synchrotron. The Synchrocyclotron along with an ion facility called ISOLDE went on to do research in nuclear physics, astrophysics, and medical physics. “The Proton Synchrotron accelerated protons for the first time on 24 November 1959, becoming for a brief period the world’s highest energy particle accelerator. With a beam energy of 28 GeV, the Proton Synchrotron became host to CERN’s particle physics programme, and provides beams for experiments to this day” (History highlights). The Intersecting Storage Rings, the world’s first proton-proton collider, came into operation in January 1971. “The Intersecting Storage Rings were formally approved for construction in 1965. The 300-metre diameter Intersecting Storage...
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