The Kinetocs Experiment of Iodide Ions and Persulphate Ions.

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The catalytic effect of D-block ions and the kinetics of reactions iodine clock reaction:

By Stephen Parsons 6K2

Centre number: 61813
Candidate number: 8270

Table of Contents
My aim and my reaction:3
Rate of reaction:4
Activation enthalpy:5
Collision theory:6
The effect of temperature on reaction rate:7
The effect of concentration on reaction rate:7
The effect of a catalyst on reaction rate:8
D-block elements:9
The effect of extra kinetic energy (from stirring etc.):10
Where do we use D-block ion catalysts?10
Arrhenius equation:12
Orders of reaction:10
Oxidation states of D-block ions:13
Electronic configuration and transition metals:13
Experiment:13
Method:14
Risk assessment:15
How to make my standard solutions of each of my reactants:15
Changing the concentration of potassium iodide:18
Changing the concentration of potassium peroxodisulphate:19
Changing the quantity of iron (III) sulphate:20
Changing the temperature at which different runs are done at:21
Changing the temperature of the reaction and using a catalyst:21
Results:22
Iron (III) sulphate:22
Potassium iodide:27
Potassium peroxodisulphate:31
Temperature change:35
Arrhenius equation:37
Percentage error:42
Conclusion:43
Evaluation:44
Bibliography46

Introduction:
My aim and my reaction:
I will be adding Potassium iodide, distilled water, Potassium peroxodisulphate (VI), Sodium thiosulphate (VI), starch and when varying the use of a catalyst I will also add Iron (III) sulphate. I will start a stop watch when I mix the appropriate concentrations of solutions together, When I react these solutions a slow reaction will occur, tri-iodide is formed and this then reacts with the sodium thiosulphate(VI) this will happen until all of the sodium thiosulphate has reacted with the tri-iodide that is produced. The further tri-iodide that is produced is reacts with the starch in the solution and this changes the solutions colour to a bluey-black and then the stop watch is stopped and the time is recorded. My chemical reactions equations:

Step 1:
Potassium iodide and potassium peroxodisulphate and produces iodine 2KI(aq)+K2S2O8(aq) I2 + K4S2O8
Step 2:
Sodium thiosulphate then reacts with this iodine and this reaction occurs until all of the sodium thiosulphate is reacted and this leads to step 3. Na2S2O3+I2(aq)S4O6-2 +2I-
Step 3:
Iodide ions produced from step 1 that bi-pass step 2 because of the lack of sodium thiosulphate to react with. 2I-+ starchstarch bided to I- mixture (blue in colour)
This signals the reactions(s) end point
I will be investigating a variety of kinetics experiments, one of the variables I will change will include the use of a D-Block catalyst, I will be using Iron (III) sulphate as my catalyst. I also aim to vary the concentrations of the potassium iodide I use and also the concentration of potassium peroxodisulphate (VI) in another separate set of runs. I will also change the temperature at which I do the reactions at as another variable. My experiments will be iodine clock reactions and I will be investigating the rate of reaction as it changes as I change variables such as the use of a catalyst, the variable of concentration changes of the reactants and the variable of temperature. From these experiments I aim to determine the orders of the reaction. I also will compare and contrast the effects of each variable between the others to determine which variable is the most drastic and effective to change and compare this to how these variables are varied in industry. Rate of reaction:

Reaction rate is the rate at which the reactants are used up or the time taken for a given amount of product to form or how much of the products are formed in a certain amount of time. This allows us to compare similar reaction with a set individual variable and see how this variable affects the reactions rate. Rate equation= change in amount of...
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