The Kant Theory of Moral and Ethics

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I. Introduction.
Philosophy plays an important role not only in modern society, but also in society as a whole. As we know philosophy can be represented as the science of contrast of different views and thoughts. Philosophers present their point of view, concerning for example, ethics, life, world outlook, and the rest of society and must choose the most suitable idea. As proven, without dispute and disagreements the philosophy couldn’t rise to such a high level at where it is today. Hence, the philosophy and ethics are interrelated whereas ethics is one of the oldest philosophical disciplines which are the object of morality. Every philosophy has been asking the issue about the class structure of society, the principles of morality, justice, right moral and upbringing ethical knowledge and among them were such celebrities as Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau, Voltaire, Kant, Marx and Hegel etc. However, Kantian theory left meaningful arguments regarding to organization that is still acceptable and useful in managing business ethics. He developed the concept of moral philosophy as universal law, the level of relations of society in organization, the importance of duty and obligation by freedom and so on. So this paper will provide 1) the non-consequentialist approach to ethics regarding to Emmanuelle Kant’s theory for organization; 2) critical evaluation of his theory providing with examples and 3) some limitations of his theory. II. Kant’s Moral Theory

Emmanuelle Kant more focused on concept of moral duty and responsibility as main key characteristics of moral conscious that served as the foundation for deontological approach. He emphasized that there not separation between duty and consequences, but nevertheless there exist gap between duty and "purely" deontological theory. Kant considered the freedom as practical reason and shared the moral law of liberty and natural law of necessity. From the perspective of deontological approach the usurious activities are considered as violation of the rules to believe another human being as a supreme value. Deontological approach is more focused on avoiding negative morally unacceptable or restrictions on the action. Man must obey the law as a moral action and be responsibility for their guilt in committing the act. (LaFave 2006) Thus, regardless of whether they want it or not the managers of organizations have a moral responsibility not only from the position of ‘debt’ i.e. from the standpoint of deontological ethics, but also from the position of ‘law’ that has unique potential for rationality. At present, managers have a moral duty of keeping informed thought and action that prompts them to manage on the principles of moral rights and duties. Hence the driving motivation for the employees is their moral duty rather than personal feelings or emotions; happiness or pleasure. (Bowie n.d.) Next important statement of Kant is the responsibility of management in front of stakeholders in terms of human respect. It means each person have right for treatment from other person not only on the basis of means to achieve result, but also being as worthy in their rights and being respected. (Hasnas 1998) In business world the relationship between managers and employees is fundamental appearance whereas exist some tension or satisfaction. Sometimes employers accept employees with absence of trust while employees looking to their boss as ‘less than efficient’. (Borowski 1998) Therefore it is possible to mark the Kant’s formulation of the categorical imperative which is requiring that all people should be treated as free and equal to each other. This principle contains two criteria for determining the morally correct and morally false; the creation of universality- ‘all must do like that’ and the criterion of reversibility- ‘you are the subject of the action of other people’. Some owners or managers maintain the Kantian theory in regard that by using people to achieve desired goals, they are...
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