The Jet Engine

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MODULE CODE: TH40018E

MODULE TITLE: Introduction to Airline & Airport Management

STUDENT No.: xxxxxxx

HAND-IN DATE: xxxxxxx 2007

Introduction to Airline & Airport Management,

xxxxxxx University.

Academic year: 2006-07

To the attention of: xxxxxxx
Discuss how the jet engine revolutionised the world of commercial aviation and how future innovations will continue to shape the industry.

This essay shall talk colloquilly about the developments of the jet engine, commercial aviation in general and how future innovations will continue to shape the industry.

In 1903 the Wright brothers; Wilber and Orville, became the first to run and fly a heavier than air machine at Kitty Hawk North Carolina in the United States of America which was a huge success. In 1919, the first scheduled flight from London to Paris was established. In 1927, Charles Lindberg made a huge sensation worldwide by flying nonstop from Paris to New York; today the trans-Atlantic route is one of the most popular among travellers [Pender, 2001].

Following the end of the 1st World War military technology was slowly “released” to the civil aviation industry leading to huge technical improvements. These ranged from radar systems to monitor aircraft movements, radio communications over very long distances, development of light metallic material to build the aircrafts and especially the improvement of existing piston engines and the first initial phases of development of the jet engine. While in the RAF, Frank Whittle studied Griffith’s turbine design and was inspired to further transform Alan Arnold Griffith’s theories about piston engines [Hawthorne, 1991]. In January 1930 Whittle patented his theory for using gas powered turbines for propulsion. This is considered the invention of the jet engine [Pavelec 2007]. In 1936 Dr Hans von Ohain patented his theory of jet propulsion in Germany even though he had no idea of Whittle’s work, he went on to build and run the first aircraft to be powered by jet propulsion, the Heinkel HeS 3 which took to the skies on 27 August 1939, two years later Frank Whittle pioneered the Gloster on May 15th, 1941 [Pavelec, 2007].

The first commercial jet powered aircraft was the Viking G-VJPH, the first purpose built jet aircraft was the de Havilland Comet which first flew on the 27 July 1949 and was introduced into service on 22 January 1952. However, fatal accidents involving the Comet reduced people’s confidence in jet air travel. Despite this, the development of the jet engine had already led aviation to a huge expansion of long haul flights and in the movement of large number of people (and cargos) from country to country. This unstructured expansion created a series of difficulties in the commercial aviation industry ranging from problems related to refuelling and landing in foreign countries, movement of people and goods, flying over the territory of other countries, etc. To overcome these problems, the Chicago Conference was held in December 1944. In this event 54 nations met to develop a multilateral air service agreement worldwide, hence setting up an interim council that was designed to collect, record, and study data concerning international aviation and to make recommendations for its improvements. The improvements included rights granting airlines from a particular country to enter another country’s air space and land at certain airports; this was when the five freedoms of air were introduced [Pender, 2001]. The first freedom of air granted the rights to airlines to fly across the territory of another state without landing but with prior notification. The second freedom of air granted Permission to land in another state for refuelling and/or maintenance. The third allowed passengers and cargo to be carried from own country to another. The fourth gave right for passengers and cargo to be carried from another country back ‘home’ and the fifth gave the right for passengers to be carried from...
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