The Islamic revolution also known as the Iranian revolution occurred in the year 1979. The revolution involved the overthrowing of the Pahlavi Dynasty. The ruler at the time was the Shah, Muhammad Reza Pahlavi. The revolution was headed by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who set up an Islamic republic of Iran (Hoveyda 12). This paper will contrast and compare the actions and ideologies of the Khomeini in his rule to the monarchy under the Shah.
Causes of the Revolution
The Iranians saw the Shah as a puppet of the west. The revolution was as a result of the increasing westernization and secularization policies of the Shah. This coupled with some social injustices fuelled the revolt against the monarchy. The funding the kingdom received from the US and other western countries was decreasing. This was because the ruler had influenced OPEC to raise oil prices unprecedentedly. He did this to raise his country’s national income. This caused a lot of opposition in public, so the revolution came in swiftly (Hoveyda 12).
Khomeinism, as many scholars dubbed Khomeini’s ideologies, were populist ideologies. Khomeinism was based on Marxist principles. It had characteristics of movements of a populist kind in other countries especially those of South America (Kramer 21).
Khomeini had led a campaign of middle class citizens that mobilized most of the lower classes, who consisted primarily of the urban poor. He organized them in a broad but pragmatic movement. They held large scale demonstration marches against the established monarchy. His ideologies were opposed to the upper class and western infidels. They supported property rights and preached a total return to the native roots. He called for eradication of western backed worldly ideas. This movement believed in a non capitalist and non communist process of developing the land. It was intellectually flexible, and it emphasized on national, political and cultural reconstruction. It did... [continues]
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