The Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Topics: Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Benazir Bhutto Pages: 3 (871 words) Published: April 22, 2013
The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is bordered in the north-west by Afghanistan, north by the former USSR and China, east by India and south by the Arabian Sea. The Muslim state that emerged from partition of British India on 14 August 1947 included an eastern wing comprising mainly the eastern half of Bengal province and parts of Assam. (The name Pakistan is coinage representing 'Punjab, the Afghan border states, Kashmir, Sing and Baluchistan') For nine years Pakistan remained a dominion. It was proclaimed an Islamic republic on 23 March 1956. A federal parliamentary system functioned until-Field -Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan seized power in a coup in October 1958. Ayub proclaimed a presidential system in the constitution of 1962 and ruled until March 1969, when he was deposed by Gen. Yahya Khan. In the first free elections in December 1970, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's Pakistan People's Part dominated the west, while Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's Awami League swept the board in the east, winning 160 of the 162 seats. East Pakistan proclaimed sovereignty and formed the People's Republic of Bangladesh on 26 Narcg 1971. Civil war followed after Yahya, supported by Bhutto, ordered troops to arrest Mujib and put down the Bengali uprising. The east-west war ended in December 1971. Yahya handed over power to Bhutto, who ruled until July 1977, before being over-thrown after an opposition campaign against alleged rigging in general elections. Gen. Zia-ul-Haq took over-initially to hold elections and transfer power to a civilian regime. But elections were twice postponed and Bhutto was tried for the murder of a political opponent and executed. Gen. Zia was killed in a plane crash on August 17, 1988 and Senate Chairman Ghulam Ishaq Khan took over as Action President. The country was placed under emergency rule. In the general election held on November 16,1998 the Pakistan People's Part (PPP) led by Benazir Bhutto won the largest number of seats (92). Benazir assumed office as the PM on...
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