The Iranian Revolution and Islamic Movements in the Twentieth Century

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The Iranian Revolution and Islamic Movements in the Twentieth Century (#1) The Iranian revolution of 1979 left profound significance for Iran, in that the revolution transformed the country’s political, social, economic, and legal structures. It resulted in the abolishment of the shah ruling and the establishment of a republic. In the revolution, not only secular laws were substituted with Islamic codes of law but political and military leaders in the shah government were expelled and a new elite group emerged. However, the Iranian revolution was a part of reflection of deep crisis of the entire Middle Eastern states in the 1970s. The states of the region failed to bring social justice, economic stability, and the end of imperialism; these unfulfilled aspirations, along with the authoritarian tendencies of the many of the region’s regimes, spawned social unrest and brought about various Islamic movements in Middle East (Gelvin 300). Although reflecting the distinctive circumstances of each state in Middle East, various types of Islamic movement exhibited similar features that characterized the Islamic resurgence as a whole. Hence, the models of political Islam put forth in the Iranian revolution and other Islamic movements are paralleled in two ways: They were initiated by those from non-political or religious sectors of the society, and Islamic values served as driving force and ultimate solution over any Western ideas to the problems of society. It has significant meaning that the Iranian revolution and the Muslim Brotherhood, one of the Islamic movements in Egypt, took place at the hands of relatively young and religiously or politically unrefined groups of people in Islamic society. These common people, who did not have any political background and were not affected by religio-political ideas, were arouse to blame elite ruling groups that were unable to bring expected changes and advancements in society. Beginning in the mid-1970s, financially...
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