The Iran-Iraq War

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Iran-Iraq War 1980-88
Year 11 2B English Written by: Mehdi Nawa Teacher: Ms. Alliss Date: 24/07/2012

CONTENTS
1.0 Introduction: Page No. 1.1 Aim of Report...............................................................................................................................1 1.2 Background of Belligerents..........................................................................................................1 1.3 Maps ...........................................................................................................................................3 2.0 Initial Causes of the Conflict: 2.1 Geopolitical Disputes...................................................................................................................4 2.2 Religious Supremacy: Rise of Shia Influence..............................................................................5 2.3 Political Skirmishes between Iran and Iraq..................................................................................6 2.4 Diplomatic Influence of International World..................................................................................7 3.0 Leaders of each side of the tension: 3.1 Saddam Hussein of Iraq............................................................................................................10 3.2 Tariq Aziz of Iraq.........................................................................................................................11 3.3 Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini of Iran..........................................................................................11 3.4 Hashemi Rafsanjani of Iran........................................................................................................12 4.0 Efforts for Peace and Consequences 4.1 Military and Economic Influence................................................................................................13 4.2 Western Peace Efforts...............................................................................................................15 4.3 Efforts for Negotiations and Ceasefire.......................................................................................16 4.5 Economic and Social Consequences.......................................................................................17 4.6 Future Conflict...........................................................................................................................18 4.7 International Relations...............................................................................................................19 5.0 Major Events in Chronological Order 5.1 First Phase September 22 1980 - late September 1981............................................................21 5.2 Second Phase late September - July 1982................................................................................21 5.3 Third Phase July 1982 - July 1988.............................................................................................22 6.0 Conclusion...............................................................................................................................26 7.0 Bibliography.............................................................................................................................27

1. Introduction
The Iran-Iraq War also known as the First Persian Gulf War was a conflict between two neighbouring Gulf States that escalated on the 22nd of September 1980 and formally ended in August 1988. The war was famous for the techniques reminiscent of WW1 trench warfare and use of chemical bombs such as mustard gas. Both belligerents were known as equally powerful since little war progress was made by either nation. The war was one of the most strategically important conflicts of modern times because it involved the battle between two major oil producers in a region where more than half the worldʼs reserves are located.

1.1 Aim of Report
The aim of the report is to give the reader a...
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