The Internet

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Lecture 8 :

Internet

The student will have a knowledge of the following:
•History of the Internet •Internet Access •Common services provided by the Internet •Internet and Society

By Mrs D.M.Narrainen, SBMF, UTM

DEFINITIONS
• Internet is based on a client-server model.
• Client is the end user’s computer (with software) that sends requests to a server. • Server is a remote computer (with software) that handles requests from clients. 2

History of the Internet
1958: – The Advance Research Agency Program (ARPA - USA), created the Information Processing Technology Office which started investigating the potential of universal networking. – Packet switching routes packets of data over a network from the originating node to the destination node, optimises the use of the channels available in a network, allowing for more data to be sent per unit time. 1969: – The world’s first operational packet switching network went live at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles). The network was named ARPANET. – The ARPANET was designed to be robust and reliable, such that it 3 could survive network losses.

History of the Internet
1978 – The British Post Office, Western Union International and Tymnet, built on the ARPANET to produce the first international packet switched network, the International Packet Switched Service (IPSS). – The Assembler/Disassembler was used to reconstruct data from packets received or to break a stream of data into packets.

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1985 – The National Science Foundation in the US constructed a university network backbone based on a TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) works as follows: • TCP – does the packeting of messages and reassembling of the message IP – handles the addressing • The open network allowed academic researchers in the US to access supercomputers. • The NSFNet went online in 1986 using the TCP/IP-based technology from ARPANET. 1993 • The first published specification for HTML was published in 1993 by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).


• • •

HTML is the most common language used to write web pages.
A Browser is a software that allows users to access and surf on the Internet Since 1996, HTML has been maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The leader of the Mosaic team at NCSA then created his own company, Netscape, in 1994 and its flagship product, the Netscape Navigator.

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1995 • Microsoft entered the market with its Internet Explorer and began what was known as the browser wars with Netscape. • By mid 90s there were more than 300 million Internet users in the world. • In 1995, Telecom Plus, a joint venture between Mauritius Telecom and France Telecom, began offering Internet services and associated value added services in Mauritius. • This is when the Internet was commercially launched in Mauritius.

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Uses of the Internet
• Providing info:
– – – – It is used by companies to provide info about their products and services to the public. Software and other files available for download. News is available.

• Communication:
– – – – – – It is an inexpensive method of communicating between people in different locations because postage stamps and telephones charges are not applied. Communication can easily take place via emails, newsgroups, chat, instant messaging, videoconferencing, and Internet telephones.

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Entertainment:
– Games, music, movies, videos, e-cards, TV programs are available.

Education:
– E-learning. You can take classes on any subject. – Communicate with people who are completing the same course as you.

Business:
– Shopping (ecommerce applications). – Internet banking. – Tourism (tourists can select hotels by visiting websites) – Airline reservations. 8

HOW TO ACCESS THE INTERNET
• Internet Service Provider
– An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a company or organisation that provides Internet access facilities and related services to customers. – Services offered...
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