The International Phonetic Alphabet

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 855
  • Published : February 6, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (revised to 2005)
CONSONANTS (PULMONIC) Bilabial Labiodental Dental Plosive Nasal Trill Tap or Flap Fricative Lateral fricative Approximant Lateral approximant Alveolar Post alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular © 2005 IPA Pharyngeal Glottal

t d µ n r | v F B f v T D s  z S Z Ò L √ ® l

p b m ı

Ê ∂ c Ô k g q G / = ≠ N – R « ß Ω ç J x V X Â © ? h H ’  VOWELS

j ¥

˜ K

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible. CONSONANTS (NON-PULMONIC) Clicks Voiced implosives Ejectives

Front Close

Central

Back

> ˘ ! ¯ ≤

Bilabial Dental (Post)alveolar Palatoalveolar Alveolar lateral

∫ Î ˙ ƒ Ï

Bilabial Dental/alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular

’ p’ t’ k’ s’

Examples: Bilabial Dental/alveolar Velar Alveolar fricative

i

y

Close-mid

IY e P

È Ë

U

¨ u Ø o ø O A Å

Open-mid

OTHER SYMBOLS

∑ Voiceless labial-velar fricative Ç Û Alveolo-palatal fricatives w   Voiced labial-velar approximant » Voiced alveolar lateral flap Á Voiced labial-palatal approximant Í Simultaneous S and x Ì Voiceless epiglottal fricative Affricates and double articulations  ¿  Voiced epiglottal fricative can be represented by two symbols joined by a tie bar if necessary.  ÷   Epiglottal plosive DIACRITICS

Open

e ∏ ´ E { ‰ å œ a ”

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. SUPRASEGMENTALS

(

kp ts N(

Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g.

Æ … Ú

"
*

Primary stress Secondary stress Long Half-long Extra-short

ÆfoUn´"tIS´n

ò

(

 

e _ e! e@ e~ e— Õ õ

â ê î ô û

High Mid Low Extra low

Downstep Upstep

e e$ e% efi e& ã Ã

ˆ

3 Ó 7 ¶ ™ 2   · + ` 8 ±

9

n9 d9 Voiced s3 t 3 Aspirated tÓ dÓ More rounded O7 Less rounded O¶ Advanced u™ Retracted e2 Centralized e· Mid-centralized e+ Syllabic n` Non-syllabic e8...
tracking img