The Insecticidal Potential of Chili Pepper Leaf Extract Against Termites
Abstract. The goal of this research is to determine the insecticidal effects of chili pepper leaf extract on termites. Chili pepper leaves were collected then air-dried and oven-dried until brittle. The leaves were then pulverized and milled using the Willey mill. After this, the powdered leaves were boiled in water and filtered. After the preparation of the extract, termites were gathered in two containers. One of the containers was sprayed with the extract. The other container served as the control. The setup was checked every hour for five succeeding hours. Result showed that the extract had no apparent effect on termites.
The chili pepper, or suing labuyo as many of us know it, is a favorite spice of many people around the world, including the Philippines. There are people who cannot eat anything without the taste of real hot pepper. Pepper have health-sustaining properties as well. They have been found to have rich Vitamin A and C contents. Here in the Philippines, even the leaves of the chili pepper are eaten as a vegetable. The goal of this project is to find out if an aqueous extract from chili pepper leaves have any insecticidal effect on insects, specifically termites. Termites are a common problem everywhere. They cause destruction in furniture, houses, or anything made of wood. If this research proves to be successful, there can now be an alternative solution to this problem and it is also possible that it can be used in the fight against other insect pest. This research will only test the leaves of the chili pepper for insecticidal properties. Only one concentration of the solution will be used for testing. The chemical contents of the extract will not be determined. The extract will only be tested on termites.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Insecticides are poisons used for chemical control. Insecticides often are used on a large scale. Low-flying airplanes and helicopters treat fields, forests, and swamps with insecticides. Large power- driven sprayers protect orchards. Gaseous insecticides, called fumigants, are used in enclosed spaces, such as grain warehouses, ship, and airplanes. In homes, people use spray guns and aerosol bombs to kill pests. In small gardens, hand-held applicators are used to spray or dust insecticides on plants.
Some of the older insecticides come from minerals and plants. Many of these contain the mineral arsenic. Insecticides that come from plants are nicotine, made from tobacco plants; rotenone, made from certain tropical plants; and pyrethrum, made from chrysanthemum flowers. These have generally been replaced by organic insecticides. The newer insecticides are made in the laboratories. There are three basic types - the phosphates, such as Malathion, the carbamates, such as carbaryl; and the chlorinated hydrocarbons, the most famous of which is DDT (dichlorodiphenyl - trichloro - ethane). Insecticides are absorbed by the insects in different ways. The insect may have body contact with an insecticide. The insect may feed on treated foliage or fruit. It may absorb vaporized insecticide through its breathing system. Or it may feed on the sap of plants that absorbed the insecticide. Usually, insects are killed by a combination of these methods. Insecticides kill by affecting the physiology of the insect. For example, borax is used to kill roaches. It abrades the skin of the insects (roughens the skin or wears it away), causing them to lose water. They die by drying. DDT and many other insecticides cause death by interfering with nerve transmissions. Others react with the nervous system in such a way that they cause the pest to stop feeding and thus starve to death. Insecticides are helpful, but they also can be dangerous. Some insecticides, called broad-spectrum poisons, kill a wide variety of organisms. Besides killing pests, they kill harmless and helpful organ¬isms, including wasps,...
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