•Network of professionals with recognized expertise and competence in a particular domain and an authoritative claim to policy-relevant knowledge within that domain or issue-area •Networks of knowledge-based expertsfrom a variety of disciplines and backgrounds •EC
oShare a set of normative and principled beliefs, which provide a value-based rationale for social action of community members oShare casual beliefs: contributing to a central set of problems in their domain: desired outcomes oShared notions of validity
oA common policy enterprise
Reason of existence
•Growing technical uncertainties and complexities of problems of global concern → increasingly difficult •Decision makers need professionals on specific issues in order to provide them with information about the subject •Uncertainty: Information is needed to define state interests on one subject and define solutions
Difference EC to Constructivism, Realism, Neoliberalism
•Constructivism does not necessarily contradict realism and neoliberalism. It is more of a social theory that explains the actions of states and actors belonging to these states. •While neoliberalism points out the importance of material interests in political interaction, constructivism sees the main significance of political interaction in shared ideas. •Constructivism tends to explain political actions. All social actions emerge from social structures which can be reproduced and changed. These actions are motivated through values and norms. Constructivism claims to, in contrary to realism, be able to explain changes. Realism assumes that actions follow rational patterns.
2.What is the mechanism of EC?
•EC have exerted their influence on decision makers in a wide variety of issue-areas. •Helping states identify their interests, framing the issues for collective debate, proposing specific policies, and identifying...