Because of movies and stories, most people believe artificial intelligence is just simulating humans. But actually, most of the machines made do not represent human behavior. [Today there are machines that can observe a human for an extended period of time and solve a problem that they may be experiencing. Certain people often question] whether scientists could create a machine that is exactly like a human. [(American Association of Artificial Intelligence)] In this case, the robot would have to be just as smart, talented, and be able to accomplish the daily tasks of a human. [(Critical Concepts)] [People also question how the effects of having smart robots would change society.] People would start to rely on the robots; and therefore, if something happened to the robots, people would be at a disadvantage because they had come to rely on them.
After World War II, people started researching and experimenting with artificial intelligence. The first to study this category of science was Alan Turing. [Alan Turing was born in the year 1912, in Paddington, England. He attended Cambridge University for his undergraduate degree, and then obtained his PhD at Princeton University. One of his first machines was the German Enigma cipher machine. In 1952 he was accused of being a homosexual. He was unable to complete his studies. The next year he died from cyanide poisoning.] [(The Enigma)] He proposed that the best way to go about this science was to use computers not machines. By the late 1950s[,] the study of artificial intelligence was underway. [("What is Artificial Intelligence?" )]
[The superior goal of artificial intelligence is to create a robot that can solve problems and process like a human.] Scientists do not know when this goal will be reached. They hope that it will be within the next twenty years. Some researchers think that to achieve this goal of thinking just like a human, the mechanism will have to be compiled with a load of information in order to reach its standard. [("What is Artificial Intelligence?" )]
Artificial intelligence is researched in two different perspectives. One is the biological side and the other psychological. The biological side is the study that humans are smart. The psychological side also includes the physiological side of humans. These two sides represent the robot's common sense and ability to achieve goals. Some scientists argue whether robots should have free will. Free will means being able to make one's own choices. [("What is Artificial Intelligence?" )]
Some of the earliest examples of artificial intelligence translate as far back to the Greek gods. In one of the myths, gods created a machine named Talos. He was made of bronze and would throw rocks at the intruders on the beaches of Crete. He also picked up the intruders and gave them a burning squeeze. [(The Next Fifty Years)] The study of artificial intelligence was finally taken into careful consideration at Dartmouth College in 1956. Four scientists took the study into deep research. This includes John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Herman Simon, and Allen Newell. They built some of the first robots that could solve algebraic word problems. [These men made predictions that they could construct robots that could be smarter than humans within twenty years.] They were given over five...