The Indus Valley Civilization and the Aryan Invasion Theory

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Calla Thompson
Humanities: Early Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization and the Aryan Invasion Theory
Of the four major early civilizations, consisting of Mesopotamia, Egypt and China, the Indus Valley Civilization is the biggest mystery by far. Due to the fact that the script of the civilization remains undeciphered, historians have to rely on remaining evidence of the civilization to learn about the culture. Located in present day Pakistan, northwest India, and eastern Afghanistan, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro are two of the largest cities excavated from the ancient civilization. Remains of these cities show an exceptional advancement in the civilization at the time. Actually, the roadside irrigation systems, waste disposal, and plumbing/water systems that suggest a high standard of hygiene, were more advanced and efficient then in many modern day areas. Standardized fired bricks, superior to other ancient civilizations of the time, were used to build most major architecture in the large cities, and imply that cities were plentiful with skilled tradesman. The Indus Valley Civilization is considered to be one of the first examples of urban-central planning. Evidence of public market areas and vast amounts of Indus artisan work imply the city relied heavily on trade, and was full of artisans and merchants as well. Further evidence is shown in the Indus artifacts found as far as central Asia, the Arabian Gulf region, and distant Mesopotamia. Highly impressive, is the advanced measuring system assumed to have been used for taxing and controlling the trade industry (Kenoyer). Lack of battles and military suggest a peaceful, socially equal society, though this is not to say that major conflict wasn’t prevalent. However, with no proof to provide, many questions remain about the civilization’s lifestyle. Areas such as religion and politics can only be speculated. What we do know is that sometime around 1900 B.C., traits of the Indus Valley Civilization, such as...
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