Arabic 301- Arabic Prose until end of 3rd Century
Sally Al Nazer-36794
The importance of the Quran in influencing the literary Arabic genres Quran is a very influential masterpiece in terms of religion, Islamic sciences and other Arab literary genres. In fact, Quran was not only restricted to spreading and prompting Arabic as a critical language to Muslims, but also Quran influenced the Arabic literature as we can highlight some differences between the pre Islamic and Islamic Arabic literary genres, such as the differences in poets. Thus, the unique relationship between Arabic and Quran is framed by the importance of the Qur’an in influencing the literary history of Arab-Islamic civilization and the various literary genres. Quran is the sacred text of Islam; it was orally recited to the prophet and remained orally transmitted throughout the lifetime of the prophet Muhammad and his companions. As Gabriel recited Quran to Mohammed, the followers found it unnecessary to write down the Quranic verses since they were memorizing and retaining them. However, the necessity to transfer Quran from oral to written was after the death of Muhammad when Quran was no longer recited to him. Another reason to write down Quran was due to the Yamama battle where numerous numbers of Muslims were killed. Also, the diversity of language among new Muslims was a threat of losing Arabic as Islam expanded further. Consequently, Quran was first written down in Mushaf and later on many copies were made from this Mushaf and spread out through all the Islamic regions. And by this way, the sanctity of Quran was preserved and unified among all the Islamic regions. It is certainly true that Quran became part of the classical Arabic literature. Actually, it is the first example of an Arabic prose, although Quran is neither prose nor poetry. Yet, prose and narrative characteristics can be traced in the surahs such as surat yousef which is the longest narrative sura. In fact, the Quran is a miracle by God to his prophet Muhammad. The excellence of the Quran was inimitable that proves the divine origin, Roger states that Ijaz al Quran is “enshrined in the `challenge` (tahhaddi) verses” (Roger, 2000, p.61), which means that no one can come up with the same quality of verses in his/her prose or poetry and that was Muhammad’s miraculous of the eloquence of Quran. Therefore, Ijaz al Quran is the masterpiece of the Arabic literature; it challenges people with its metaphors, parallelism, imaginary, saja’, rhetorical and cohesive language. Moreover, Arabic literature did exist before Islam. However, with the revelation of Quran, Arabs reached their peak of language because of the superiority of the ijaz, and this is also supported by Kadi & Mustansir “it was only after the emergence of Islam, with its founding scripture in Arabic, that the language reached its utmost capacity of expression, and the literature its highest point of complexity and sophistication. Indeed, it probably is no ¶ exaggeration to say that the Qurʾān was one of the most conspicuous forces in the making of classical and post-classical Arabic literature.” (Kadi & Mir, 2012, p.5). Also, Ijaz was a link to the development of books to discuss Quran such as the book ijaz al quran by al bakallani and dala’el al ijaz w asrar al balagha by abdul kaher al jurjani. These books developed the Quran sciences. Furthermore, Ijaz al Quran became the source of peak eloquence and linguistic perfection. Therefore, ijaz al Quran is the major source of mastering the Arabic language. Likewise, the language of Quran is inimitable and no one is able to copy it or compose something similar which made Arabs and Quraysh acknowledge that it is beyond human’s ability. As a matter of fact, the unfeasibility of Quran made people fail to challenge it. Thus, people started to borrow from Quran Iqtibas. Al Thalibi, for example, composed a book entitled al-Iqtibās min al-Qurʾān...