SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
Supply Chain Management refers to the flows of processes though which the goods are moved from the customer order to the acquisition of raw materials, supply, production, and distribution of the goods to the relevant customer. It basically refers to the management of the activities for the collections of raw materials to the production at the factories to the distribution of these goods. The manager must coordinate with all of these pieces in a cordial manner for the effective management of the supply chain (Mentzer, 2001).
Logistics Management is widely known concept in the global world. All companies rely on the logistics for the efficient flow of the goods and services. For Example: Industrial manufactures rely heavily on these logistics for the transportation of the mass-produced items. At the same time, the consumer goods manufactures want their goods to be delivered to the outlets and warehouses before the customer calls for it. Therefore, Logistics management has now evolved into one of the most important links in the supply chain process (DHL, 2010).
Logistics refers to the part of the supply chain management that plans, implements and processes the flow of the goods and services from the source to the end consumer. It includes both thee forward and reverse flow as well as the storage of the goods. The vital elements of this part include all modes of transportation, inventory control and storage, packing and flow of information. Figure 1 shows the costs and investment in different sectors’ logistics departments.
Figure 1: Sector Comparison of logistics costs and logistics investments1
The logistics has overall improved the cost, competence and consistency in the supply chain process.
RECENT CLIMATE CHANGE
Climatic Change takes place over millions to thousands of years. It is a statistical shift of weather and climate that takes place, changing the environment of the earth. When analyzed over hundreds of years, the climatic conditions have patches of climate having similar qualities and properties. The shift from one climate to another climate takes place slowly and gradually in order to maintain the ecological system. The biggest climatic change that is being anticipated these days and is mostly in the news is global warming. It is a shift towards a hotter climate due to the green house gases that are being reduced by the human beings.
According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climatic change, it is defined as being a change in climate that can be linked directly or indirectly to some human activity that ends up changing the composition of the atmosphere. This is in addition to the variability of climate that takes place over a period of time. According to this definition, climatic change can be considered a synonym of global warming (Tim, 2006).
There are a number of causes for such a phenomenon to occur; one of the causes, green house gas emissions, carbon dioxide emissions are being reduced by human effort in an attempt to decrease the rate at which global warming is taking place, so that the ecological system on the Earth can sustain. Some of these causes are not in the hands of the humans; these may be changes in the solar radiation that may take place, or the movement of tectonic plates, deviation in the Earth’s orbit, volcanism etc. These factors are usually out of the hand of humans and hence the gradual shift in climatic change is occurring over the past years, escalated by human interventions (Martin, 2002)....