John von Neumann, born December 28, 1903 was a Hungarian mathematician who made important contributions to computer science, von Neumann is best known for his EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) which opposed the not yet released ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). Neumann's EDVAC design was intended to resolve many of the problems created by the ENIAC's design. The ENIAC was designed to operate in decimal, whereas the EDVAC was designed to work in binary. These specific types of computers had to be physically rewired in order to perform different tasks. These machines are often referred to as "fixed-program computers," since they had to be physically reconfigured in order to run a different program. Since the term "CPU" is generally defined as a software (computer program) execution device, the earliest devices that could rightly be called CPU's came with the advent of the stored-program computer. - Moore's Law
Gordon E. Moore, a co-founder of Intel Corporation, devised an empiric observation that the complexity of integrated circuits, with respect to minimum component cost, doubles every 24 months. Moore's original as found in his publication "Cramming more components onto integrated circuits"
The complexity for minimum component costs has increased at a rate of roughly a factor of two per year ... Certainly over the short term this rate can be expected to continue, if not to increase. Over the longer term, the rate of increase is a bit more uncertain, although there is no reason to believe it will not remain nearly constant for at least 10 years. That means by 1975, the number of components per integrated circuit for minimum cost will be 65,000. I believe that such a large circuit can be built on a single wafer. - Electronics Magazine 19 April, 1965
Gordon Moore's observation was not named a "law" by himself, that honor goes to Caltech professor, VLSI (Very-large-scale integration) pioneer, and entrepreneur Carver Mead.
- Intel Corporation
Founded in 1968 by Gordon E. Moore and Robert Noyce as Integrated Electronics Corporation, originally it was intended to go by the name of "Moore Noyce" however, this sounded remarkably similar to "more noise" which is an ill-suited name for an electronics company. They went by the name of NM Electronics for almost one year until finally switching to Intel, the name was already owned by a hotel chain, so they had to buy the rights to that name at the beginning. Intel is a U.S.-based multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. Intel also makes network cards, motherboard chipsets, components and other devices. Intel is widely known as fabricating the first microprocessor; this CPU dubbed the Intel 4004 was originally intended for a Japanese company Busicom, to replace a number of products already produced by them. However, the 4004 was introduced to the mass market on November 15, 1971. The microprocessor did not become the core of Intel's business until the mid-1980. Today, Intel's microprocessors are commonplace with the Pentium 4, Pentium 4 Extreme Edition, Pentium D and, Pentium Extreme Edition. However, in mid-January of 2006 Intel decided to drop the Pentium name in favor of it's new mainstream moniker(s) Core Solo and Core Duo and the soon to be released Core 2 Solo and Duo.
- AMD Incorporated
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc founded in 1968 in Sunnyvale, California, by a group of defectors from Fairchild Semiconductor, also known as the Traitorous Eight, which also included Jerry Sanders. Amongst the Traitorous Eight was Intel's co-founders Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce. AMD began as a producer of logic chips in 1969, and then entered the RAM (Random Access Memory) chip business in 1975. In February 1982, AMD signed a contract with Intel, becoming a second-source manufacturer of the 8086 and 8088 processors, both of...