The Importance of Considering Philosophical and Psychological Foundations in Developing a Curriculum.

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In the name of Allah, the most Gracious, the dispenser of Grace.

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT ( HMEF5073 )

Part A

THE IMPORTANCE OF CONSIDERING PHILOSOPHICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS IN DEVELOPING A CURRICULUM.

A comprehensive view of the curriculum requires a consideration of the nature and needs of the individual, the aspirations and requirements of society, and the process by which the individual incorporates experience. As the study on curriculum is very wide, the audience chosen should be from all walks of life. As proposed by Golan Steven (1982); Interviews were conducted with a state director of business and office education, superintendent, curriculum director, director of vocational education, principal, business education department chairman, business education faculty member, parent, and student. The instrument used was "What Do You Believe?," 15 statements of ideas expressed in educational literature pertaining to a line of action for curriculum improvement. Reactions to six statements were in strong agreement. The functioning philosophy of participants would, therefore, include those statements dealing with exposing students to what man knows and does not know, personalized curriculum, benefits of learning from peers and groups, learning difficulties beginning in disturbed home relationships, limits of the subject-matter patterns of organization, and encouragement of developing creative thinking. 

“The purpose of education in Malaysia is to enable Malaysian society to have a command of the knowledge, skills, and values necessary in a world that is highly competitive and globalised, arising from the impact of rapid development in science, technology, and information”. Preamble to the Education Act (1996). So, I would like to take this topic, the importance of considering philosophical and psychological foundations in developing a curriculum by putting it into Malaysian scene. In other words, at the same time I shall be looking into their importance in developing Malaysian schools’ curriculum. -------------------------------------------------

In describing the Philosophy and Psychological Studies at Open University in England, it was clearly written that: Philosophy and psychology seek to answer profound questions about us, our minds, our behaviour, and our place in the social and physical universe. What makes us happy? Do humans display irrational biases? How can I, a mere physical being, have thoughts and emotions? How does science progress and can I trust it? By what moral authority does the state rule over me? Who should get what? Is there a god? (Open University, 2012) -------------------------------------------------

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The psycho-philosophical foundations in developing curriculum embodies the following concepts: the ultimate aim or end of education, the correct sequence of importance of all these ideas in philosophy, excellences that need to be cultivated in effective education, the most important content of the curriculum, best method of instruction and how to teach those instruction in order to develop these excellences, the role of teacher in education and the nature of the student (The wanderwoman.com, May 2011). -------------------------------------------------

It seems that both philosophical and psychological foundations in developing a curriculum are really essential. They are the bread and butter to the whole system. Lacking any of these foundations, will create unsteadiness in any schooling system. By looking into the above statements, one would easily realise that philosophical and psychological foundations are very important in developing a curriculum. In fact, it is how different traditional disciplines have influenced curriculum such as; the philosophy of education recognises that the development of a civil society depends on the education of the young as responsible, thoughtful and enterprising citizens which is a...
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