1.1: Study Background
The population aging, in other words, the greying of the population is major concern all over the world. Many factors are leading to population aging, namely, unwillingness to marry, late marriage, fertility control, low birth rate and longer life span. All these factors are also related to developing status of the country. The more the country is developing, the more the factors have stronger effect on aging population and the age population problems of the country is more serious.
If there is no solution for the population aging, many countries, especially developing countries, will face the problems regarding old age care. The Government of the many countries will be facing huge burdens in taking care of the aging population concerning their financial supports, housing requirements and medical care. Moreover, with rising aged group, lack of youth labour forces and rise in wages of the labour are unavoidable scenarios in near future. So the governments are looking carefully into the age population problems in their countries.
In Asia alone, the percentages of poulation 65 and above will increase by 314% from 2000 to 2050. South East Asia region has the highest percentage of aging in Asia; it will increase 430 % over 50 years period. The south Asia is second highest region, which will increase 393 % during the same period of time and the region which has lowest percentage is East Asia region which will increase 243%, East west centre: 2002: 83. The population of age 65 and above will be raised from the minimum of 3.4 times to maximum of 5.2 times in different Asia regions over 50 years time according to these data.
Figure 1: No. of People age 65 and above in Asia and its regions 1.2: Study Area
Singapore is one of the countries who are facing age population problems. Most of the Singaporeans are not willing to marry especially at early age. The reason is that they are focusing on catching up with the growing economy. The following figure is obtained from the statistics of marriages and divorces, 2009, Department of Statistics: 2010: 2. According to the figure, general marriage rate of Singapore is declining, especially in female population. It shows the unwillingness of Singaporean to marry.
Figure 2: General Marriage rate of Male and Female (Department of Statistics, Ministry of Trade and Industry: 2010). Even if they are married, they are reluctant to give birth. There is another reason that makes the married couple unwilling to give birth. The reason is the cost of rising up the baby. So they will choose to go for abortion, even when they are pregnant. To their favour, Abortion is legal up to 24 weeks of Pregnancy by Pregnancy Termination Act (Singapore) which was enacted in 1974, Ministry of Health: 2004.
But some of the couples may want a child of their own. Even in this case, they will not take more than two to avoid the high cost for bringing up a kid. They will usually control the numbers of children by using any of the family planning methods. Family planning programs are started in Singapore in 1949 by voluntary association called Singapore Family Planning Association (SFPA) and the first governmental campaign is was launched in 1960, Lee:2010.
When fertility control and family planning program are very effective in a country, low birth rate is inevitable in that country. Moreover, the blooming economy and developing medical technology provides the longer life span of the population. Although the longer life span describes the improvement of medical technology, combination effect of the above mentioned factors finally leads Singapore to Aging of its population.
1.3: Aim and Objectives
Age Population is studied with the purpose of finding better solutions to correct age population problems as well as sorting out more suitable ways to assure the happiness of old aged groups. To fulfil these purposes, clear understanding of age...