The Impact of Jet Experiment: Verifying the Integral Momentum Equation

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Impact of Jet

Mohananda A/L Anantha Krishnan

Group Members

Ahmad Saeed Abood

Eleanor Hang Lee Shean

Philip Mah Koon Yue

Chan Jun Hoe

School Of Engineering

Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus

Malaysia

29 March 2010

Table of Contents

Abstract

1. Introduction

2. Experiment Design

▪ 2.1 Materials

▪ 2.2 Methods

▪ 2.3 Procedure

3. Results and Discussion

▪ 3.1 Tables of Experimental Data

▪ 3.2 Graphs of Various Forces on various designs

4. Conclusion and Recommendation

5. References

6. Appendix

Abstract

The impact of jet experiment is to demonstrate and verify the integral momentum equation.[1]. In lay man terms, it’s another way to understand fluid pressure by using the pressure to accelerate the fluid to a plate by a high velocity in a jet which in result will generate force due to impulse. The graph will show forces against momentum with different design plates. This experiment helps us to understand about fluid pressure also gives us a better understanding about fluid related machines.

Introduction

The objective of this experiment is to compare forces generated by impact of jet on vanes of various shapes and also to understand how forces can affect the change of momentum flow in the jet. The impact of jet experiment helps us to understand how does turbines works under fluid pressure. [2]. The mechanical work produced by using pressure of moving fluid at a high velocity jet of water from nozzle produces force when it strikes on the plane of the surface of the plate. The forces exerted on the surface plane will also depend on the density of fluid at specific temperature. The force exerted on the impact will generate the momentum change and also to determine the mass flow rate. This experiment aims at assessing the different forces exerted by the same water jet on a variety of geometrical different plates. The results obtained experimentally are to be compared with ones inferred from theory through utilizing the applicable version of momentum equation.

Experiment Design

2.1 Materials

The lists of apparatus used are the jet impact apparatus, volumetric hydraulic bench, flat plate, conical cup, hemispherical cup and a stopwatch. This apparatus are used to determine the volumetric flow rate and to determine the force exerted on the plate. The figure below gives the schematic diagram of the impact of jet experiment.

2.2 Methods

The volume of water is determined after 60 seconds. In order to accurate volume reading, it is only recorded after the volume reaches a whole number after 60 seconds. The time is then recorded in seconds. The distance of the jockey weight is then recorded at weigh beam. The information from volume must be converted into mass by using the density of water at temperature 26 °C. The data collection of time and distance helps to determine mass flow rate, initial velocity, velocity of water, momentum and force.

2.3 Procedure

1. The lever is balanced (as indicated by the tally) with the jockey weight at the zero position.

2. The water is then admitted by the nozzle by adjusting the volumetric valve.

3. The flow rate is then increase to its maximum value.

4. The position of the jockey weight is then recorded.

5. The volume of the water is measured using the catch-tank and also the time of the stopwatch.

6. A total of 5 different jockey positions is recording for gradually decreasing flow rates, such that the jockey weight is moved to the left in estimated equal distance.

7. The procedure is then repeated for conical cup and flat plate.

Results and Discussion

3.1 Tables of Experimental Data

Hemispherical Cup...
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