The Impact of Global warming and Desertification on the Nigerian Ecosystem
SEN 406 Technical Report Writing
Tabansi Anthony Uchenna
Prepared For:- Dr. Arthur U. Ume SITC
ABSTRACT Global warming (climatic change) and Deforestation, has become a reality with disastrous effects on Nigeria’s ecosystem. The seasonal cycles, ecosystem and agriculture including water needs, food production and supply and more are affected by climatic changes. Global warming (climate change) also leads to sea-level rise with its attendant consequences, and includes fiercer weather, increased frequency and intensity of storms, floods, hurricanes, droughts, increased frequency of fires, poverty, malnutrition and series of health and socio-economic consequences. It has a cumulative effect on natural resources and the balance of nature. Desertification in Nigeria arises from the demands of increased populations that settle on the land in order to grow crops and graze animals. However, desertification is presently affecting the eleven northern states and is also considered the most pressing environmental problem and accounts for about 73% out of the estimated total cost of about US$5.110 billion per annum the country is losing arising from environmental degradation (United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, 1999). This paper discusses briefly, the menace of global warming and desertification, the causes of this menace and solutions. Further, it analyses the extent and the impact of global warming and desertification on the Nigerian ecosystem.
INTRODUCTION Nigeria has a variety of ecosystems, from mangroves and rainforests on the Atlantic coast in the south to the savannah in the north bordering the Sahara. Whether dry or wet, these ecosystems are being battered by global warming and desertification and the impact can be vast. In the aspect of globalization, some stable ecosystems such as the Sahel Savanna may become vulnerable because global warming will reinforce existing patterns of water scarcity and increase the risk of drought in Nigeria and indeed most countries in West Africa. As well, the country’s aquatic ecosystems, wetlands and other habitats will create overwhelming problems for an already impoverished populace. Preliminary studies on the vulnerability of various sectors of the Nigerian economy to Climate Change were conducted by the Nigerian Environmental Study/Action Team (NEST). The sectors evaluations were based on seven natural and human systems identified by the Intergovernmental panel on climatic change (IPCC), and were later condensed into five. They include: • Human settlements and health;
• Water resources, wetlands, and freshwater ecosystems;
• Energy, industry, commerce, and financial services;
• Agriculture, food security, land degradation, forestry, and biodiversity; and • Coastal zone and marine ecosystems.
The study determined that virtually all of the sectors analyzed manifested some evidence of vulnerability to global warming. None were unaffected, nor will remain unaffected in future by changes in climatic conditions. In fact, more recent assessment although in regional and global scale, not only corroborate the patterns established by Canada-Nigeria Climate Change Capacity Development Project(CN-CCCDP) reports but captured more disturbing scenarios using more...
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