The Impact of Excreta Disposal Into Lagos Lagoon on the Lagoon Ecosystem at Iddo Discharge Point in Apapa Local Government Area of Lagos State Nigeria

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THE IMPACT OF EXCRETA DISPOSAL INTO LAGOS LAGOON ON THE LAGOON ECOSYSTEM AT IDDO DISCHARGE POINT IN APAPA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE NIGERIA By
Dr. Bolanle Wahab Mr. Ojolowo Saeed Kamaldeen 08079917354 and 08077470306 bolanle_wahab@yahoo.com ojolowosaeed@yahoo.com University of Ibadan Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic Faculty of the Social Sciences School of Environmental Planning Urban and Regional Planning Department Urban and Regional Planning Department P.M.B 1020 Ijebu-Igbo, Ogun State. Nigeria

ABSTRACT
This study uncovered possible impacts of discharging raw sewage into the lagoon on the lagoon ecosystems and man in particular. The result of physiochemical and microbiological tests carried out on fish and sixteen water samples taken from Iddo in Apapa Local Government of Lagos State, Nigeria revealed pollution. E,coli, Proteus sp., Enterobacter sp., Aeromonas sp., Klebsiella sp., and Salmonella sp. were isolated microorganisms identified in the samples. The quantity of Total Solid (802-2711ppm), Dissolved Solids (550-1990ppm), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (59-140ppm), Level of conductivity (120-500µS), colour (5- 10HU), and Nitrate (23-65ppm) found in the water samples also confirmed that the Lagoon environment is insalubrious.

Finally, conclusion was drawn with the recommendation that sewage should be treated prior to discharge into any sphere of the environment.

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Waste, either solid or liquid, is an integral part of man. Its generation and efficient management facilitate social, economic and biological development. Amount of waste generated keep soaring as a result of increasing urban population and consequent rapid urbanization, which, in-turn presents greater challenges for disposal and management. The problem is even worst with respect to non-solid wastes since no city in Nigeria has a sewage system worth its name (Lagos State Ministry of Economic Planning and Budget 2004:9).

The concern of this research is on excreta waste being discharged into the Lagos lagoon in relation to the impact on the lagoon ecosystem. According to Longman Dictionary of contemporary English (2003:474) “excreta is the solid or liquid waste materials that people and animals produce and get rid of from their bodies”. Excreta contain enteric organisms such as Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp. and E. coli that are detrimental to the health of fauna and flora when injected.

Lagoon contains brackish water (water that is slightly salty). This water is regarded as one of the most productive aquatic ecosystem in the world, and is of great socio-economic importance (Kiener, 1978 cited in Lalèyè and Moreau, 2005:28). According to Lalèyè and Moreau, (2005:28), Durand et al (1994) categorised the fish fauna in West Africa lagoons into (a) the littoral euryhaline marine species which come seasonally or accidentally into the lagoon; (b) the estuarine species which live usually in mixohaline inland waters; and (c) the continental or inland water species that are only scarcely recorded in the lagoon as they can enter them only when the water became fresh. Out of three hundred and thirty two fish (332) species belonging to the three categories of fish indicated above, seventy-nine (79) species have been identified in the Lagos lagoon. This is a vindication that Lagos lagoon provides substantial quantity of aquatic foods in the sub-region; however, mutilating its physico-chemical and biological structure portends significant socio-economic and health...
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