The impact of diversity programs on job satisfaction
from the employee’s perspective: An empirical examination.
Over the past few decades the buzz word for many organizations has been diversity. The term is not limited to one industry or country. The literature that was obtained specifically impacted the federal government, education system and the service industry both nationally and internationally (Testa & Mueller, 2009), (Kouse, 2009), (Burgess, French & Strachan, 2009) and (Pitts, 2009). It is a term that is used in multiple vision statements and newspaper want ads to attract attention to ones individual organization. However, it is still a vague term. Svyantek and Bott (2004) eludes to this vague term in their study on “Received Wisdom and the relationship between diversity and organizational performance” (p. 297). This study decreases the impact of many of the previous studies on diversity that outlines no true line of measurement or identification of diversity for the study. Therefore, it is imperative to define the meaning of diversity for the duration of this literature research and into the future study. Cummings and Worley (2001) defined diversity as “the mix of gender, age, disabilities, cultures, ethnic backgrounds, and lifestyles that characterize the organization’s workforce and potential labor pool” (p. 670). It is also imperative to clarify that during this study Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) and Equal Opportunity (EO) terminology are interchangeable; however, Affirmative Action is considered a separate component of the previously two stated. Many of these programs exist because of past unjust actions and to prevent future unjust actions. Their existence also presents a controversial appearance. The future research will also attempt to provide valid information that will clarify ones understanding of the programs in hopes of bringing value to their existence. Regardless of the lack of understanding or controversy of the programs nothing can deter the fact that the current workforce has increased tremendously over the last few decades. Its increase also brought about a more diversified workforce making it imperative for managers at all levels to understand its impact on their particular industry and bottom line dollar. Therefore, managers must be aware of the appropriate policies, programs and training that have the most influence. This research will provide as much historical background to enhance managers with this process. Another one of the objectives of the proposed study will be to bring perspective to the terms for both managers and its employees. More specifically the study will attempt to identify the impact of the programs that are used by many employers to maintain diversification within their workforce. How do diversity programs impact job satisfaction (turnover rate)? This is the key to the study but in order to arrive at the findings of the research it is imperative to provide as much supporting information from previous studies. Diversity Programs
The two programs that are discussed in depth in today’s workforce are Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity. These programs are considered social programs. Syed and Kramar (2009) clearly identify that the initiatives taken at the organizational level for Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity are not independent of the social, political and cultural systems (p. 643). This was supported by Svyantek and Bott (2004) when it was suggested that initiatives as such are that of society which may not be directly related to the organization (p. 308). Burgess, French and Strachan (2010) suggest that workforce equity programs are under the program of managing diversity in the context of affirmative action policies and rapidly changing workforce demographics (p. 78). This signifies the...