The Hyksos

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This essay will discuss the conquering of Upper Egypt 200 year ruling and adaptation of the Hyksos over Egypt, during the second intermediate period. At the end of the twelfth dynasty after the reign of Sobekkare, there was a short time(period) where Egypt had no ruler because there was no heir to the throne. Unexpectedly from a region East to (of) Egypt, invaders of unknown ethnicity marched into Egypt with confidence.” They easily seized it without striking a blow”(Van Seters p.15). According to Manetho, they overpowered the rulers of the land, burned the cities, and tore many monuments down ruthlessly. They treated the civilians harshly, massacring many, and leading many others into slavery; eventually they took over the empire, making one of their own king. Someone named Salitis who had a seat in Memphis named these invaders, which were known as “the Hyksos” which he translated as "shepherd kings"(Cassin p.33) Many scholars believe the impression given by Manetho, is over exaggerated and false. They believe that the Hyksos were not a specific racial group, but instead referred them to “the rulers of an area around Avaris and Sharuhen during the Second intermediate period”(Van Seters p.68). Perhaps they were of a number of Semitic groups, all driven from Asia by poverty, famine, and drought. It seems as though they settled in Lower Egypt where they created an empire from Avaris. For over 200 years they occupied the land and ruled over it, “the ruling was later on described as a traumatic, and a horrifying time for Egyptians”(Cassin p.126). However, Scholars do not know if this information comes from contemporary Egyptians who live in lower Egypt, under their ruling. It was previously thought that one reason that the Hyksos had such an easy time going to Upper Egypt and taking over, is that they had chariots and they were exceptional archers. It could be that the Egyptians had chariots as well, however they may have been less experienced in their use. It can...
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