THE HISTORY OF INTEL
The microprocessor has changed our lives in so many ways that it is difficult to recall how different things were before its invention. During the 1960’s, computers filled many rooms. Their expensive processing power was available only to a few government labs, research universities, and large corporations. Intel was founded on July 18,1968 by engineers, Gordon Moore, Robert Noyce, Andrew Grove, and Arthur Rock. Rock became Chairman, Moore was President, Noyce was Executive Vice President in charge of product development and worked with Moore on long range planning, and Grove headed manufacturing. The purpose of the new company was to design and manufacture very complex silicon chips using large-scale integration (LSI) technology. Moore and Grove’s vision was to make Intel the leader in developing even more powerful microprocessors and to make Intel-designed chips the industry standard in powering personal computers. Moore and Noyce wanted to seek Intel because they wanted to regain the satisfaction of research and development in a small growing company. Although the production of memory chips was starting to become a commodity business in the late 1960’s, Moore and Noyce believed they could produce chip versions of their own design that would perform more functions at less cost for the customer and thus offer a premium price. Intel’s unique challenge was to make semiconductor memory functional. Semiconductor memory is smaller in size, provides great performance, and reduces energy consumption. This first started when Japanese manufacturer Busicom asked Intel to design a set of chips for a family of high-performance programming calculators. Intel’s engineer, Ted Hoff, rejected the proposal and instead designed a Single-chip, a logic device that retrieved its application instruction from semiconductor memory. Buying Back the Cash
There was a problem with this new chip Busicom owned it. Intel was convinced to repurchase the rights to the product. Intel then offered to return Busicon’s $60,000 investment in exchange for the rights of the product. The Japanese agreed after struggling with the financial troubles. The Microprocessor Hits the Market
Intel’s first microprocessor, the 4004, was introduced in 1971. This $200 chip delivered as much computing power as the first electronic computer, the ENIAC. After the 4004, Intel introduced the 8008 microcomputer, which processed eight bits of information at a time. The 4004 and 8008 began to open new markets for Intel products. Today, affordable computing power is available to designers of all types of products, producing creativity and innovation. Turning Point: IBM PC
In 1981, Intel microprocessor family had grown to include the 16-bit 8086 and the 8-bit 8088 processors. These two chips created 2,500 winning designs in the year. A product from IBM was one of those designs, which became the first PC. Intel was convinced IBM to choose the 8088 as the brains of its first PC. Because of IBM’s intelligent decision, the PC business grew to tens of millions of units every year. In 1982, Intel introduced the 286 chip. It contained 134,000 transistors and provided 3 times the performance of other 16-bit processors during the time. The 286 were the first microprocessor that offered software compatibility with its predecessors. The Microprocessor Machine
In 1985, the Intel 386 hit the market. The 386 could perform more than five million instructions every second. Compaq’s DESKPRO 386 was the first PC based on the new microprocessor. In 1989, Intel 486 processor was ready to hit the market. This new chip resulted in 1.2 million transistors and the first built-in math coprocessor. This chip was faster than the original 4004. In 1993, Intel introduced the Pentium processor, which set new performance standards with up to five times the performance of the Intel 486 processor. The Pentium processor uses 3.1 million transistors to perform up to 90 MIPS, about 1,500 times...
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