The History of India's Modernization

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The History of India's Modernization

Because of external influence, India modernized at the turn of the twentieth century. It was originally a long-established, traditional country. They were for the most part against British interference, due to their religious traditions and culture. Due to colonialism, their country turned upside down and back again. India transformed in many ways: politically, economically, socially, and technologically. India has also felt the stings of long-term effects of colonialism, and does today.

In the sixteenth century, European countries such as Portugal, the Netherlands, France, and the United Kingdom arrived as traders in India. The eventual British control of India was brought by the fall of the Mogul Empire. India was very religiously divided, between the Muslims and the Hindus. Mogul control in south India came under pressure with the increase of strong attacks by the Hindu rebels. Mogul leaders imposed taxes on Hindus, destroyed their temples, and forced them to convert to Islam. With the absence of a strong central authority, the provinces of India became increasing independent from the central authority both economically and politically. Despite their own internal conflict, they did not want to be controlled by the British. But at the Battle of Plassey, Britain proved its dominance. By 1865, India was under control of the East India Trading Company. The British felt they were more or less welcome until the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857-58. Its immediate cause was the cartridge for the new rifle, which had to be bitten before it was loaded. Rumors spread that the cartridge were greased with cow-fat and pig-lard. Because the cow is sacred to the Hindus, and the Moslems considers pigs unclean, both religious groups were offended. The deeper causes of the Mutiny were resentment over the Westernization of India and fear that native customs, religions, and social structures would be lost. In 1947, after the long...
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