The history and structure of the travel and tourism sector
THE HISTORY AND STRUCTURE OF THE TRAVEL AND TOURISM SECTOR
Task one:- LO1 - Explain the key historical developments in the travel and tourism sector. You should provide a concise outline of key developments from the pilgrimages to the current day and conclude with future developments. You need to refer to the growth of the package holiday as a key development and explain its current position within the sector. With use of industry examples explain the structure of the travel and tourism sector including the concepts of chain of distribution and the roles of the sectors: government organisations, transport, accommodation, tour operators, travel agents and visitor attractions. You should explain the meaning of horizontal and vertical integration and how this has affected the industry structure. Provide an explanation of Leipers’ tourist system and explain the difference between public, private and voluntary sectors. The definition of tourism is a journey and stay in an area different to that of where one lives and works. If someone owns a holiday property or moves to work in the area on a paid or voluntary basis, this cannot be referred to as tourism. Tourism began in Roman times; with holidays to the seaside and spa areas dating back as early as 1300BC. During this time, wealthy and educated members of society set off to explore other cultures and visit the ancient world’s wonders. Popular places of interest to visit were the Acropolis in Athens and the Pyramids in Egypt. Part of the reason for tourism being introduced was the fact that the first Roman Emperor Augustus had rid the Mediterranean of pirates, thus making travel safe. Some tours taken could have had duration of two to five years. This is comparable to the Grand Tour of the 18th and 19th century when well-educated and wealthy people considered this as part of their education to go. This was a British invention and generally the privilege of young upper class gentlemen, which by the late 19th century became an American phenomenon. As opportunities for travel became more common-place travel to places in search of spiritual satisfaction became popular, thus the increasing popularity of pilgrimage travel. Pilgrimage travel destinations vary greatly in accordance to individual’s religious beliefs. Using the Christian religion as an example, there is an interest to visit sites connected to the birth, life, crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus Christ. Members of the Roman Catholic denomination have travelled to Lourdes in large numbers since 1858 when reported sightings of ‘Virgin Mary’ took place perceiving destination to be ‘a place of pilgrimage and miraculous healings’ Nowadays Lourdes attract 5 000 000 pilgrim tourists each year. (Wikipedia). A good description of the tourism system is one described by Lepier in his basic tourism system where he identified three geographical regions:-
* Traveller generating regions
* Transit destination regions
* Transit route regions
“(Leiper 1995). A closer look at the three geographical regions shows that the traveller generating region is the places, or market, that the tourists and tourism is coming from, it can provide the 'push' factors that motivate people to travel. It is from the region, people will research information on the destinations, make the booking and depart. The tourist destination area is where the tourist is a tourist, this is where the tourism takes place, it is at the destination that the managers put their plans and strategies into effect. The 'pull' factor of the destination, which varies from place to place, is what creates the demand for the travellers to that region. The transit route region is all the places visited on the way as well as going from A- the traveller-generating region to B- the tourist destination region. (Cooper et al...