The Hidden Dimension

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  • Topic: Animal, Proxemics, Distance
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Books by Edward T. Hall

THE SILENT L A N G U A G E THE HIDDEN DIMENSION H A N D B O O K FOR PROXEMIC RESEARCH THE FOURTH DIMENSION IN ARCHITECTURE: The Impact of Building on Man's Behavior (with Mildred Reed Hall) THE DANCE OF LIFE: The Other Dimension of Time HIDDEN DIFFERENCES: Doing Business with the Japanese (with Mildred Reed Hall) BEYOND CULTURE

ANCHOR BOOKS EDITIONS, 1969, 1990 Copyright © 1966, 1982 by Edward T. Hall All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by Anchor Books, a division of Random House, Inc., New York, and simultaneously in Canada by Random House of Canada Limited, Toronto. Originally published in hardcover in the United States by Doubleday in 1966. The Anchor Books edition is published by arrangement with Doubleday, a division of Random House, Inc. Anchor Books and colophon are registered trademarks of Random House, Inc. All photographs were taken by the author, with the following exceptions: Plate 1, Sven Gillsater; Plate 3, H. Hediger; Plate 5, Bud Daley, Chicago Daily News; Plate 8, Serge Boutourline; Plate 2 1 , Howard F. Van Zandt; Plate 23, Judith Yonkers; Plate 25, Hedrich-Blessing. Grateful acknowledgment is made for permission to use excerpts from copyrighted material, as follows: From The Painter's Eye by Maurice Grosser. Copyright © 1951 by Maurice Grosser. Reprinted by permission of Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. From Language, Thought, and Reality, selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf, by permission of The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Copyright © 1956, by The Massachusetts Institute of Technology. From The Making of the President ig6o by Theodore H. White. Copyright © 1961 by Atheneum House, Inc. Reprinted by permission of the publishers. From "Prologue: The Birth of Architecture," Copyright © 1965 by W. H. Auden. Reprinted from About the House, by W. H. Auden, by permission of Random House, Inc. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hall, Edward Twitchell, 1 9 1 4 The hidden dimension / Edward T. Hall, p. cm. Reprint. Originally published: Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966. Includes bibliographical references. 1. Spatial behavior. 2. Personal space. 3. Architecture—Psychological aspects. 4. City planning—Psychological aspects. I. Title. BF469.H3 1990 90-34870 304.2'3—dc20 CIP ISBN 0-385-08476-5 www.anchorbooks.com Printed in the United States of America 46 48 50 49 47 45 AUTHOR'S PREFACE I. II. CULTURE AS COMMUNICATION DISTANCE REGULATION IN ANIMALS IX 1 7

CONTENTS

Spacing Mechanisms in Animals Flight Distance Critical Distance Contact and Non-Contact Species Personal Distance Social Distance Population Control The Stickleback Sequence Malthus Reconsidered The Die-off on James Island Predation and Population III. CROWDING AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN ANIMALS

10 11 12 13 13 14 15 16 18 19 21
23

Calhoun's Experiments Design of the Experiment Development of the Sink Courting and Sex Nest Building Care of the Young Territoriality and Social Organization Physiological Consequences of the Sink Aggressive Behavior The Sink that Didn't Develop Summary of Calhoun's Experiments

23 25 26 27 28 28 29 30 30 31 31

THE HIDDEN DIMENSION

CONTENTS

vii
113

The Biochemistry of Crowding Exocrinology The Sugar-Bank Model The Adrenals and Stress The Uses of Stress IV. PERCEPTION OF SPACE: DISTANCE RECEPTORSEYES, EARS, AND NOSE

32 33 34 35 39

X.

DISTANCES E T MAN S

41

Visual and Auditory Space Olfactory Space The Chemical Basis of Olfaction Olfaction in Humans V. PERCEPTION OF SPACE: IMMEDIATE RECEPTORS —SKIN AND MUSCLES

42 45 46 49

The Dynamism of Space Intimate Distance Personal Distance Social Distance Public Distance Why "Four" Distances? XI. PROXEMICS IN A CROSS-CULTURAL CONTEXT: GERMANS, ENGLISH, AND FRENCH

114 116 119 121 123 125
131

51

Hidden Zones in American Offices Thermal Space Tactile Space VI. VISUAL SPACE

52 54 60
65

Vision as...
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