Consumers around the world vary tremendously in age, income, education level and tastes. They also buy an incredible variety of goods and services. How these diverse consumers relate with each other and with other elements of the world around them impact their choices among various products, services, and companies.
To get a better sense of the importance of understanding consumer behavior, let’s look first at Harley-Davidson, maker of the nation’s top-selling heavyweight motorcycles. Who rides these big Harley “Hogs”? What moves them to tattoo their bodies with the Harley-Davidson emblem, abandon home and hearth for the open road, and flock to Harley rallies by the hundreds of thousands? You might be surprised, but Harley-Davidson knows very well.
The Harley-Davidson example shows that many different factors affect consumer buying behavior. Buying behavior is never simple, yet understanding it is the essential task of marketing management.
Here take a look about the consumer buyer decision process on the example of Harley-Davidson’s motorcycles. The buyer decision process consists of five stages: Need Recognition, Information Search, Evaluation of Alternatives, Purchase Decision, and Post purchase Behavior. Clearly, the buying process starts long before the actual purchase and continues long after. Marketers need to focus on the entire buying process rather than on just the purchase decision.
1. Need Recognition: Need recognition is the first stage of buying decision process, in which the consumers recognizes a problem or need. The buying process starts with need recognition-the buyer recognizes a problem or need. The need can be triggered by internal stimuli when one of the person’s normal needs-hunger, thirst, sex-rises to a level high enough to become a drive. A need can be triggered by external stimuli. For example, an advertisement or a discussion with a friend might get you thinking about a buying a new motorcycles. It is not that you want a motorcycle; it is that you want a Harley; the brand is that strong. At this stage, the marketer should research consumers to find out what kinds of needs or problems arise, what brought them about, and how they led the consumers to this particular product.
2. Information Search: Information search is the stage of buyer decision making process in which the consumer is aroused to search more information; the consumers may simply have heightened attention or may go into active information search. As interested customer may or may not search for more information. If the consumer’s drive is strong and satisfying product is near at hand, the consumer is likely to buy it then. If not, the consumer may store the need in memory or undertake an information search related to the need.
For example, supposes Harley-Davidson, it is the most famous motorcycle to each rider. Each year, in early march, more than 35,000 Harley bikers rumple through the streets of Daytona Beach, Florida, to attend the Daytona bike week celebration. Once you have decided you need a Harley, at least you will probably pay more attention to bike add, bike owned by friends, and bike conversations. Or you may actively search the Web, or talk with friends, and gather information in other ways. The amount of searching you do will depend on the strength of your drive, the amount of information you start with, the ease of...