Summary of Chapter 2
“THE GREEK PHILOSOPHY: SOCRATES, PLATO AND ARISTOTLE”
There are many different philosophers who appear during the fifth century one of this were the Sophist came from the greek word sophisma and sphizo meaning “I am wise”, their philosophy influenced Greece that led to democracy. The Sophist moves in public and can convinced the citizen in a milieu of rhetoric. They are more on politics and paideia that is a formal instruction. There are many sophists like Hippias, Prodicus and the most significant Protagoras and Gorgias.
Protagoras he came from Abdera and influenced Athens. He is more on grammar and language, a Rhetorician and knowledge about Gods. He is known for his line “Man is the measure of all things, of course that are, that they are; and of those that are not, that they are not.” He speaks things opposed to being and of doxa or the opinion of mortals. Gorgias a great Greek orator was from Leontini in Sicily. His book “On Non-being” discusses the sophist dependency on the Eleatic’s entity and verified that there is no entity. Philosophy loses its truth from rhetoric’s. It is up to Socrates to place it on new bases and what Aristotle and Plato need no to accomplish.
Socrates was against the sophist. Socrates believed that “genuis” diamonion or familiar spirit guide him at critical time. This is like a divine voice of a God that tells him what to do. “know yourself” or reflect says Socrates. For him arete, virtue (deepest and most basic propensity of man, that for which he has actually born.) is Knowledge a man needs to know what right and wrong thus a an can control himself with knowledge. He always asks questions to anyone but they don’t know the answers and don’t know their ignorance, because of this they accuse plato “for introducing new gods and corrupting the youth” and was sen to trial. His knowledge and philosophy caused his life at an early age but he gained a lot students and followers one them was Plato.
Plato was born in Athens. He is the student of Socrates and the death of his master led him to be interested in political themes and to his theory of the state. He founded the school of philosophy called academy for its property is dedicated to the hero academus. Plato chose the dialogue genre of writing in expressing his thoughts and because it is related to his dialectic as a philosophic method. Socrates was the principal character on most of Plato’s dialogues. Some of Plato’s dialogues were the Apology, the Crito, the Euthyphro (Socratic teachings); Protagoras, the Gorgias, the Euthydemus, on the sophist (important dialogues); the Phaedo (immortality of the soul); Symposium, Banquet (love); the Phaedrus (theory of the soul); the Republic (justice and concept of the state); the Thaestetus; and the Parmenides(most important platonic writing). The Allegory of the Cave is one of Greek philosopher Plato’s most well-known works, found in the Republic. It is an extended story, myth or tale, where humans are beings imprisoned by their bodies and what their perception of things by sight only. In the Allegory of the Cave Plato plays with the concept of what would happen if people suddenly face the light of the sun, and perceived “true” reality. Plato also created a Simile of the line which can be found also in the Republic. The line reveals the hierarchical nature of the forms. He defined forms as the eternal truths that are source of all reality. That reality is founded upon the Good as the source of all knowledge, Plato named the sun as the “god” and the seed of good, so for religious thinkers the good is similar with god. The line shows that plato deeply influenced the establishment of different religion like Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. In the dialogue called meno, plato concluded that...