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THE great social transformation

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THE great social transformation

  • Course: Social science method
  • Professor: Dr, Chu
  • School: NSU
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xploring Social Change There are around 190 states all over the world, covering almost the whole land. Except several states like Cuba and China, a large majority of states are capitalist states. Dose capitalism origin from each state Of course not. Capitalism originated in Europe, and then spread to other continents. Nowadays, apart from US, Europe is the most advanced continent in the world, in terms of gross domestic production, economic structure, civilian education, and their political institutions. However, before the 18th century, there is no doubt that Asia, especially China enjoyed the highest level of civilization. A vivid and great contrast shows up. Why eastern Asia countries, like China and India, lagged behind and some Europe countries moved forward In ancient times, because of primitive transportation, there was little communication between different regions. Thus, different areas were relatively self-reliant and there were few interactions. It is obvious that different areas exhibit different development paths. Capitalism was once born in China in Ming Dynasty. In theory, a new factor will arise, and then grow and develop. But in China, the sprouts of capitalism was killed and failed to thrive. As capitalism stands for advanced mode of production, its failure in China partly resulted in Chinas long-lasting poverty compared with the west. Capitalism arose in Europe at around the same time. By contrast, it is astonishing that capitalism gained a complete victory in Europe and then spread to almost the whole world. In the meanwhile, many European states succeeded in transforming to modern states. In vivid contrast, on the whole, China seemed to struggle hard to transform to a modern state but faced so many obstacles. As we all know, before 18th century, there is no doubt that eastern Asia was the most developed area. So why Europe succeeded in transforming to a new social system but China failed Alternative Theories Several...
xploring Social Change There are around 190 states all over the world, covering
almost the whole land. Except several states like Cuba and China, a large majority of states are
capitalist states. Dose capitalism origin from each state Of course not. Capitalism originated in
Europe, and then spread to other continents. Nowadays, apart from US, Europe is the most
advanced continent in the world, in terms of gross domestic production, economic structure, civilian
education, and their political institutions. However, before the 18th century, there is no doubt that
Asia, especially China enjoyed the highest level of civilization. A vivid and great contrast shows up.
Why eastern Asia countries, like China and India, lagged behind and some Europe countries moved
forward In ancient times, because of primitive transportation, there was little communication
between different regions. Thus, different areas were relatively self-reliant and there were few
interactions. It is obvious that different areas exhibit different development paths. Capitalism was
once born in China in Ming Dynasty. In theory, a new factor will arise, and then grow and develop.
But in China, the sprouts of capitalism was killed and failed to thrive. As capitalism stands for
advanced mode of production, its failure in China partly resulted in Chinas long-lasting poverty
compared with the west. Capitalism arose in Europe at around the same time. By contrast, it is
astonishing that capitalism gained a complete victory in Europe and then spread to almost the whole
world. In the meanwhile, many European states succeeded in transforming to modern states. In
vivid contrast, on the whole, China seemed to struggle hard to transform to a modern state but faced
so many obstacles. As we all know, before 18th century, there is no doubt that eastern Asia was the
most developed area. So why Europe succeeded in transforming to a new social system but China
failed Alternative Theories Several alternative theories provide respective explanations to this
question. 2.1 Class Struggle 2.2 The Role of Protestants Another German social scientist, Max
Weber, explained the rise of capitalism from the perspective of religion. In 16th century, religion
reform took place in Europe. After the religion reform, some new Christians, namely, Protestants
appeared. According to Max Weber, the Protestants, especially ascetic Protestants, like Calvinists,
possessed the spirit of capitalism. In his classic literature, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of
Capitalism, Max Weber explained this question in detail. The Protestants had a deep belief in the
doctrine of predestination. Weber continued to argue that the Protestants believed that God loves
money and wealth was a symbol of God. Whats more, in the Protestants opinion, wealth can serve
to increase Gods glory. Therefore, the Protestants worked extremely hard in order to make huge
profits and earn a large sum of money. Moreover, they were very thrifty. In this way, they were able
to approve their identity as Gods chosen people. In a nutshell, it was the Protestants who greatly
pushed forward capitalism. In the beginning, the sprouts of capitalism were very fragile in Europe,
facing many strong obstacles. In addition, many Protestants believed that in the eyes of God, all
men were created equal. So the Protestants also promoted equality which was extremely important
for the mechanism and operation of democracy. These Protestants with spirit of capitalism made
great contributions to modern social change. After analyzing European religion, Max Weber turned
to the counterparts in East Asia. He argued that Buddhism and Confucianism didnt have similar
roles as Protestantism did. 2.3The Rise of Modern Europe States Rulers pursuit of war involved
them willy-nilly in the extraction of resources for war making from the populations over which they
had control and in the promotion of capital accumulation by those who could help them borrow and
buy. War making, extraction, and capital accumulation interacted to shape European state making.
Power holders did not intend to create nations, nor did they ordinarily foresee that national states
would emerge from war making, extraction, and capital accumulation. Similar to Karl Marxs
economic determinism, there are many interactions between political and economic factors.
Capitalists pursuit the most suitable form to reach their goal. In the end, it turned out that this
original form evolved and became modern state. In China, there were neither war makers nor state
makers. Capitalists cooperated with nobody. So why capitalists in China failed to interact and
cooperate with power-holders Theory Hypothesis Here, I make an attempt to explain this
phenomenon from the perspective of struggles between power-holders. Power structure makes a
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